2000 Congressional Pig Book | Citizens Against Government Waste

2000 Congressional Pig Book

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2000

Summary

The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition.

Introduction

We may be entering a new millennium, but it’s the same old story inside the Beltway. Members of Congress continue to gouge and gore, lobbyists try to coax and cajole, and rattled taxpayers struggle to cling to the few dollars left in their pockets. No matter what the year, if it’s spring in Washington, taxpayers must beware the running of the pigs.

This annual rite of passage takes on special meaning in 2000. Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) spent the entire winter searching through the fine print of the fiscal year (FY) 2000 appropriations bills, and the results were not the usual assortment of unnecessary and wasteful projects. CAGW found more porkbarrel spending than ever before, and that means it’s more difficult for taxpayers to avoid being run over by their own money.

The 2000 Congressional Pig Book is cluttered with 4,326 porcine projects – a 52 percent increase over FY 1999. The final tally of $17.7 billion, a 47 percent increase over FY 1999, brings total pork identified by CAGW since 1991 to $100 billion.

The eclipse of the $100 billion mark proves beyond a doubt that pork-barrel spending is a perpetual raid on the Treasury. The president, Congress, and even the taxpayers share the blame for this national embarrassment. First, our elected leaders in Washington can’t keep their hands off our money. Second, the big spenders believe they have the right to waste our tax dollars because they believe it helps them get reelected. In the end, the American people have bought into an anonymous bribe-taking scheme, selling their votes for a few measly little pieces of pork.

The top three increases from FY 1999 to FY 2000 were: Military Construction from $1 billion to $3.45 billion (235 percent); Foreign Operations from $27.3 million to $86.7 million (218 percent); and Commerce/Justice/State from $223.8 million to $534.3 million (139 percent).

Alaska led the country with $636 per capita ($394 million). The runners up were Hawaii with $264 per capita ($313 million) and Mississippi with $204 per capita ($565 million). The national per capita average was $25.92. The common thread among the top three per capita states is that they are represented by powerful senators and appropriators – Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (RMiss.), Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), and Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii).

The new millennium will provide new challenges and obstacles that will test the resolve of the federal government as well as the American people. In order for pork-barrel projects to be relegated to a time capsule that historians can open in the future, Congress must change its high-spending diet. If not, the pigs will keep running wild, and the deficit and debt will surely rise up again.

The 365 projects, totaling $2.6 billion, in this year’s Congressional Pig Book Summary symbolize the most egregious and blatant examples of pork. As in previous years, all of the items in the Congressional Pig Book Summary meet at least one of CAGW’s seven criteria, but most satisfy at least two:

  • Requested by only one chamber of Congress;
  • Not specifically authorized;
  • Not competitively awarded;
  • Not requested by the President;
  • Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the previous year’s funding;
  • Not the subject of congressional hearings; or
  • Serves only a local or special interest.

I. Agriculture

Even though the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) frowns on the practice of funding grants that cater to only one state or commodity, appropriators still use the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) special research grants program to earmark their pet research projects. From advanced spatial technologies in Mississippi to wool research in Montana, Texas, and Wyoming, members of Congress continue their unabashed earmarking in the hopes that these morsels will help them curry favor back home. The tally for special research grants for FY 2000 is $63 million, even though USDA officials only requested $5 million. Total agriculture pork in FY 2000 is $114 million, or 1 percent less than in FY 1999.

$5,786,000 added for wood utilization research (Alaska, Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Miss., N.C., Ore., and Tenn.). House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio) pleaded with the House to continue funding for wood utilization research explaining, “I have a little coffee table in my house, and I cannot get that sap to stop staining up through the covering that is on it.” Since 1985, $56 million has been sapped from the taxpayers for this research.

$3,354,000 for shrimp aquaculture research (Ariz., Hawaii, Mass., Miss., and S.C.). According to testimony by USDA officials, the original completion date of this research was 1987. Now, “researchers anticipate that the specific research outlined in the current proposal will be completed in fiscal year 1999.” Since 1985, $45 million has been appropriated for this research.

$1,300,000 added for peanut research in the state of House Agriculture Appropriations subcommittee member Jack Kingston (R-Ga.): $1,000,000 for peanut quality and $300,000 for the National Center for Peanut Competitiveness. The competitiveness center is an absurd waste of money because the federal peanut program restricts the acreage for growing peanuts, preventing any marketplace competition.

$525,000 added by the House for food safety research in the district of House Agriculture Committee member Bob Riley (RAla.). According to USDA testimony, as of March 1999, CSREES had not received a grant proposal from Auburn University and was not able to determine whether there would be any non-federal funds to help support this project. This is the second (and hopefully last) year of this research grant.

$500,000 for swine waste management research at North Carolina State University in the district of House appropriator David Price (D-N.C.). According to testimony by USDA officials, research should have been completed by March 1999. Since 1997, $1.5 million has been appropriated for this project. (There is no truth to the rumor that this research is being conducted beneath the U.S. Capitol.)

$445,000 added by the House for improved fruit practices research in the district of House Agriculture Committee member Debbie Stabenow (D-Mich.). According to USDA testimony, the only benefactor of this research is Michigan’s tree fruit and small fruits industry. Since 1994, $3.1 million has been appropriated for such research.

$250,000 added by the Senate for the National Center for Cool and Coldwater Aquaculture in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.). According to USDA, this center will consist of a tank/aquarium building of approximately 20,000 square feet and a laboratory/office complex of approximately 30,000 square feet. Ground breaking for construction of the building was supposed to occur on November 9, 1999, but was delayed even though more than $16 million has been appropriated to date for this project. When completed, annual operating costs are expected to top $4 million.

$246,000 added by the House for income enhancement demonstration in the district of House Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio). According to testimony by USDA officials, “the Center seeks to enhance the competitiveness for agricultural firms in Northwest Ohio and create greater economic opportunity for local residents.” The current phase of this program was expected to be completed by September 1999. Since 1991, $2.3 million has been appropriated for this project.

$100,000 for Vidalia onion research in the state of House Agriculture Appropriations subcommittee member Jack Kingston (R-Ga.). In the past, money has been used for “pungency testing” and is now supposed to go toward onion disease research. Vidalia onions are only grown in Vidalia, Georgia, which happens to be in Rep. Kingston’s district, so the national application of the disease research is highly questionable. Since 1998, $284,000 has been appropriated for this program, enough to bring tears to the eyes of taxpayers everywhere.

$42,000 for the Food Processing Center at the University of Nebraska. Money was appropriated for this research even though at the time of the subcommittee’s hearings in March 1999, USDA had requested, but hadn’t received, a proposal in support of the FY 1999 appropriation. Since 1992, $400,000 has been appropriated for the center.

The following earmarks show that leadership has its privileges:

$6,583,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Thad Cochran (R-Miss.), including: $2,000,000 for a biocontrol and insect-rearing laboratory; $1,000,000 for advanced spatial technologies; $750,000 for the National Center for Development of Natural Products; $308,000 for the National Warmwater Aquaculture Center; and $50,000 for acoustics research (the better to hear the sweet sound of tax dollars flowing into the state).

$5,508,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $5,000,000 for the U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; $250,000 for floriculture research; and $131,000 for agricultural diversification.

$2,475,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $650,000 for seafood harvesting, processing and marketing research; $650,000 for alternative salmon products research; and $500,000 for new crop opportunities research.

The following projects were added in conference:

$500,000 for agriculture telecommunications in New York. (The corn has ears — it can hear you.)

$350,000 for diaprepes/root weevil research in Florida.

$300,000 for seafood safety in Massachusetts. $300,000 for the Nevada Arid Rangelands Initiative.

$200,000 for climate change research in Florida. $200,000 for bovine tuberculosis research in Michigan.

$200,000 for improved early detection of crop diseases in North Carolina.

II. Commerce, Justice, and State

No appropriations bill is safe from the fiscal chicanery of the appropriators. The Commerce/Justice/State Appropriations Bill is especially vulnerable because it offers many opportunities for Congress to funnel money. The pork in this bill includes everything from law enforcement to protecting sea turtles. Pork for FY 2000 was $534 million, or 139 percent more than last year’s tally of $223.8 million.

$58,000,000 added by the Senate for Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery in Alaska, California, Oregon, and Washington. The House Committee did not recommend funding for this program for several reasons. First, the authorization for the grant program under which this money was requested (Section VI of the Endangered Species Act) has expired. Second, funds are only allowed to be appropriated out of the Department of Interior, over which the Commerce subcommittee has no jurisdiction. Finally, there is no authorization for the payment of these funds as grants to these states. Thus, the House Committee concluded: “There are substantial questions about what the funds can be used for, who oversees the funds, the conditions under which the funds are provided, such that there is a need for authorizations to be pursued to at least set the ground rules for these funds.”

$30,050,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Commerce Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Judd Gregg (R-N.H.), including: $15,000,000, or one half of the National Institute for Justice’s counterterrorism budget, earmarked for a research project at the Dartmouth Institute for Security Studies; $5,800,000 for the Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Technology at the University of New Hampshire; and $1,500,000 for the New Hampshire Safety Department’s Operation Streetsweeper.

$22,200,000 added by House Commerce Appropriations subcommittee members Julian Dixon (D-Calif.) and Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-Calif.), including: $18,200,000 for the California Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement to fight methamphetamine production and trafficking in the state; $2,000,000 for the Better Educated Students for Tomorrow program in Los Angeles (L.A.) to provide tutoring and recreational activities for elementary school students; $1,000,000 for the family violence response teams project administered by the L.A. Police Department; and $500,000 for the L.A. Bridges juvenile crime prevention program.

$21,818,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $5,500,000 for construction of a seal life center; $1,250,000 for Alaska crime identification; $850,000 for crab research development; $400,000 for the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission; $225,000 for the Beluga Whale Commission; $150,000 for the Alaska Harbor Seal Commission; $125,000 for the Aleut Marine Mammal Commission; and $50,000 for the Bristol Bay Native Association.

$19,720,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Commerce Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Ernest “Fritz” Hollings (D-S.C.) and House appropriator James Clyburn (DS. C.), including: $9,000,000 for maintenance and renovations to the Charleston Border Patrol Academy; $300,000 for research on shrimp pathogens in the southeastern United States; $300,000 to continue a study of the status and trends of southeastern sea turtles; and $300,000 for research on the Charleston bump, an offshore bottom feature that attracts a large number of fish. (Everyone already knows the bump is a popular dance; why is the government teaching fish how to do it?)

$12,500,000 added by the Senate for the Center for Cultural Exchange East and West in Hawaii (more commonly known as the East/West Center [EWC]). EWC sponsors workshops on topics such as community-based forestry and premarital sex, and holds a biannual international fair with music, dance, crafts and games. Although there was a budget request for this project, the House Committee, for the second consecutive year, did not recommend funding for this private organization associated with a university.

$8,250,000 added by the House for the payment to the Asia Foundation account. Even though there was a budget request, the Senate Committee, as it did in FY 1999, did not appropriate any money, stating “the Asia Foundation is a non-governmental grantmaking organization that Congress has repeatedly urged to aggressively pursue private funds to support its activities. The Senate Committee believes that the time has come for the Asia Foundation to transition to private funding.”

$5,200,000 added by Senate Commerce Appropriations subcommittee member Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.): $4,000,000 for a new law enforcement communications system for Vermont law enforcement agencies; $1,000,000 to the St. Johnsbury, Rutland, and Burlington technology programs; and $200,000 for a new Mobile Command Center (a van) for the Vermont Department of Public Safety.

$1,750,000 added in conference for the North/South Center in Florida. For the second year in a row, the House Committee did not recommend funding for the center. Prior to 1991, the center operated on private funding, and competed and received projectspecific federal grants.

III. Defense

Democracy is a very precious commodity. Those who protect and promote that privilege deserve the most effective defense our tax dollars can buy. The men and women in our Armed Forces have stood tall in the face of every adversary in every corner of the world. Today, one of the Department of Defense’s (DOD) biggest battles is standing tall against congressional appropriators who want to use precious defense funds for their own pet projects. DOD funding should be about spending money wisely to protect and promote democracy rather than being relegated to a grab bag of pork goodies for appropriators. Total defense pork for FY 2000 was $8.9 billion, or 46 percent more than last year’s total of $6.1 billion.

$375,000,000 added by Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott (RMiss.) for an Amphibious Assault Ship. One of the reasons that Sen. Lott requested this ship is because the shipyard where it will be built (Ingall’s Shipyard) is literally within view of his house in Pascagoula. To save millions of dollars, the Navy wanted to renovate old carriers instead of purchasing new ones. This is the second unrequested ship in three years that Sen. Lott has forced DOD to build at this shipyard.

$275,000,000 added for five F-15 fighter planes to be built in the district of House Minority Leader Richard Gephardt (D-Mo.). The Pentagon did not want the planes.

$76,700,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Defense Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Daniel Inouye (DHawaii), including: $10,000,000 for the Pacific Missile Range Facility; $6,000,000 for the Pacific Disaster Center; $4,000,000 for Project Albert (which has nothing to do with defending the vice president); $3,000,000 for a laser communications experiment; and $1,000,000 for brown tree snake eradication.

$45,900,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $15,000,000 for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP); $12,500,000 for the Adak base; and $3,000,000 for the Barrow Landfill. Initially designed to capture energy from the aurora borealis (northern lights), HAARP is now being configured to heat up the ionosphere to improve military communications. Instead, HAARP is heating up the ire of many taxpayers.

$17,500,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Defense Appropriations subcommittee member Ernest “Fritz” Hollings (DS. C.): $10,000,000 for the Charleston Macalloy site and $7,500,000 for the Charleston Naval Shipyard. Both appropriations came through the Office of Economic Adjustment, the DOD agency that helps communities affected by base closures. The Macalloy site (a former steel-producing factory) is on the verge of being added to the Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund list. The government may be cleaning up the site unnecessarily, because a private developer is interested in the property, even with its environmental issues.

$15,500,000 added by House Defense Appropriations subcommittee member Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.), including: $5,500,000 for the Sustainable Green Manufacturing Initiative; $5,000,000 for the Warheads and Energetics Center of Excellence; and $2,000,000 for the future combat vehicle. Rep. Frelinghuysen bragged about adding these projects to the appropriations bill even though DOD did not request them.

$12,000,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House Defense Appropriations subcommittee member Norm Dicks (D-Wash.): $8,000,000 for resource preservation and $4,000,000 for three-dimensional printing and metalworking at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard.

$10,000,000 added by the Senate for the Fitzsimmons Army Hospital in the state of Senate appropriator Ben “Nighthorse” Campbell (R-Colo.).

Looking through DOD’s appropriations bill, one would naturally expect to find defense-related items. But year after year appropriators fund projects that have questionable defense implications:

$7,000,000 added by the House for alcoholism research.

$5,100,000 added by the Senate for behavioral science research through the Air Force.

$5,000,000 added by the Senate for special education support.

$4,000,000 added by the Senate for technology innovation and teacher education.

$4,000,000 added by the House for a job-placement program.

$2,500,000 added by the House for the Youth Development Initiative.

$400,000 added by the Senate for math teacher leadership.

$300,000 added by the House for a youth development and leadership program. (And exactly how is this different from the Youth Development Initiative?)

$250,000 added by the Senate for artifact recovery from the Civil War ship C.S.S. Alabama. This ship was sunk off the coast of France. (This will certainly help secure democracy for the free world and help keep our soldiers well trained, well fed, and well housed.)

IV. District of Columbia

Last year appropriators slipped four projects into the District of Columbia (D.C.) Appropriations Bill. This year CAGW declared the D.C. bill “pork free.” CAGW commends the appropriators for resisting the temptation to add projects to this bill and hopes that this type of fiscal responsibility will spread to other appropriations bills.

V. Energy and Water

Spending for Energy and Water pork ebbs and flows like the tides. Total pork spending dropped from $950 million in FY 1999 to $569 million in FY 2000, a 40 percent decrease. The bad news is that there are still hundreds of projects funded by Congress even though the Administration did not request them.

In particular, appropriators had some fun in the sun with beach renourishment projects. In FY 2000, such projects got little support from the Clinton Administration because it wants the Army Corps of Engineers to get out of the beach renourishment business, which represents a local, rather than a national, interest. The President’s budget request for FY 2000 provided $35 million for shore protection studies and projects. Yet Congress, full of coastal representatives, insisted on passing more than $90 million for such projects, including:

$7,000,000 added by the House for beach erosion construction from Brigantine Inlet to Great Egg Harbor Inlet in the state of House Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.). Rep. Frelinghuysen recently claimed, “As New Jersey’s only member of the House Appropriations Committee, I always fight for New Jersey’s best economic interest… protecting our state’s beaches has been ‘no day at the beach,’ but we did it.” (It’s no picnic for taxpayers either.)

$1,028,000 added by the House for shoreline erosion protection along Fire Island in the district of House Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Michael Forbes (D-N.Y.). (Apparently, switching parties didn’t change his appetite for pork.)

$40,000 added by House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Pete Visclosky (D-Ind.) to fund regular operations at the Indiana Shoreline Erosion Project. Rep. Visclosky secured $700,000 in beach renourishment funds for this project last year.

Further examples of pork-barrel spending items:

$27,100,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska). Of that total, $20 million went to his pet project, the Denali Commission. The commission was established to funnel federal economic development aid to Alaska, but has expanded to cover federal assistance for building hospitals, healthcare centers and other medical facilities. Sen. Stevens created the commission two years ago and has been its only champion in the annual budget free-for-all. The House Committee didn't give the commission any money, seeking to terminate its work and retrieve $18 million in unspent 1999 funds. Yet Sen. Stevens stared down his House counterparts and sought $25 million for the commission. He was disappointed when it only received $20 million. “We'll have to live with it,” the senator told the press. “Some of the reductions come about because I am chairman [of the Appropriations Committee]. Some think the money wouldn't be there if I weren't chairman.” (No one thinks so; everyone knows so.)

$13,550,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Pete Domenici (R-N.M.), including: $2,000,000 for the Middle Rio Grande project; $800,000 for the Upper Rio Grande water operations model; $300,000 for the Navajo-Gallup water supply project; $250,000 for the Ute Reservoir Pipeline project for eastcentral New Mexico; and $200,000 for a North Las Cruces flood evaluation project.

$9,450,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Harry Reid (D-Nev.), including: $1,500,000 for the Newlands water rights fund; $300,000 to restore the ecosystem and increase the water supply of the Walker River Basin; $250,000 for the carbon dioxide/hydrogen production gas reforming facility; and $100,000 to study the effects of radiation on avian populations at The Nevada Test Site.

$5,000,000 added by the Senate for the Vermont gasification project in the state of Senate appropriator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.). This project was funded even though the House Committee explicitly prohibited further funding.

$1,600,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii): $1,500,000 for the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority, which will be used to expand the monitoring and assessment of environmental impacts of ocean activities, and to facilitate the private-sector development of new products and services derived from marine resources; and $100,000 for Kawaihae Harbor Improvement Investigation.

$1,500,000 that may be used for the Million Solar Roofs Initiative. This “budget request” was announced by President Clinton in a 1997 speech before the United Nations. The goal of the program is to get solar-energy tiles on top of 1 million buildings by 2010. According to the Million Roofs website, “The Initiative will not direct and control the activities at the state and local level nor will it typically pay for the installation of solar energy systems.” Yet, for the second year in a row, the program was awarded $1.5 million in conference.

$700,000 added for waterway projects in northwest Indiana by House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Pete Visclosky (D-Ind.), including: $500,000 to dredge and fund regular operations at the Burns Small Boat Harbor, and $100,000 for the Indiana Harbor Ship Channel in East Chicago for the final planning of a confined disposal facility.

$625,000 added by House Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Chet Edwards (D-Texas) for Lake Waco safety and recreation improvements. A hiking and bike trail with lights on top of the Lake Waco Dam is on the drawing board. According to Col. Jim Weller, the Corps’s Fort Worth district engineer, “The trail will have lights and a paved surface so that it can be used for a number of different recreational interests. It’s an ideal feature for the dam.” (This is a “dam” waste.)

$500,000 added by Senate Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) for the University of Louisville to conduct research on production systems for Pure Energy Corporation’s “P-Series” alternative motor fuel. Pure Energy Corp. is a private company that develops and commercializes technology for new fuels. The president and CEO of the company, Merrick Andlinger, said, “The Senator’s efforts demonstrate his forward-thinking leadership in recognizing the future benefits of the P-Series.” (All Sen. McConnell really demonstrated is that it is possible to sneak corporate welfare into any bill.)

$350,000 added by Senate Energy Committee and Senate Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Conrad Burns (R-Mont.) for the Montana Trade Port Authority in Billings for continuation of the Hydrogen Fuel Cell program. The funding will be used to conduct a feasibility study and demonstration project that could lead to the development of new environmentally friendly and renewable sources of energy using hydrogen fuel cells.

Also found in the Energy and Water Appropriations Bill were several earmarks for academic institutions, including the following, which were added in conference:

$1,500,000 for the Hollings Cancer Center at the Medical University of South Carolina. It should come as no surprise to anyone that this funding was in the state of Senate Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Ernest “Fritz” Hollings (D-S.C.), for whom the center was named.

$1,000,000 in the state of Senate appropriator Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) for the Center for Research on Aging at Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical Center in Chicago.

$1,000,000 for the breast cancer program at the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System at the State University of New York– Stonybrook campus in the district of House Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Michael Forbes (D-N.Y.).

VI. Foreign Operations

The Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill is not known for containing pork. It usually contains the same few special interest items year after year, such as the International Fund for Ireland. But some new, frivolous projects were added in FY 2000, including the Russian Leadership Program and the International Law Institute at Georgetown University. As a result, total pork rose by 218 percent, from $27.3 million in FY 1999 to $86.7 million in FY 2000.

$20,000,000 added in conference for the Russian Far East Program. This corporate welfare giveaway will help American firms with expertise in primary industries, including natural resource development, telecommunications, basic infrastructure, finance, and consumer goods, expand their markets to the Russian Far East. (Didn’t appropriators ever hear of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the Export-Import Bank, or any other similarly redundant programs in Washington?)

$19,600,000 added for the International Fund for Ireland (IFI) in support of the Anglo-Irish Accord. This U.S. contribution to the fund is to be spent on “those projects that hold the greatest potential for job creation and equal opportunity for the Irish people.” Such projects include building a replica of the Jeanie Johnston, a Canadian ship that once ferried famine victims across the Atlantic, and a national water sports center to be used for coaching top-level athletes. Through war and peace, rain and shine, deficits and surpluses, IFI continues to get funded. Since 1986, $346 million has been appropriated for this program.

$10,000,000 added in conference for the Russian Leadership Program. Proposed in early 1999 by the U.S. Library of Congress, and backed by Rotary International and the United Methodist Church's Board of Global Ministries, the purpose of the program is to expose emerging leaders in the Russian Federation to the U.S. economic system, democratic institutions, people and culture. Three thousand Russian political, business, and community leaders flew to the United States as part of this program in September 1999 to participate in activities such as a visit to the Festival Flea Market in Florida, a trip to the Coors brewery in Colorado, and a swing dance.

$5,000,000 added in conference by House appropriator James Walsh (R-N.Y.) for the Irish Peace Process Cultural Training Program. As many as 4,000 young people from Northern Ireland will be allowed to enter the United States each year until 2002 and to work here for as long as three years. Participants will be brought to the United States “for the purpose of developing job skills and conflict resolution abilities in a diverse, peaceful and prosperous environment” and will then “return home better able to contribute toward economic regeneration and the Irish peace process.”

$1,500,000 added by the Senate for the Urban and Environmental Credit Program Account (UECPA). Although the Clinton Administration requested funds for this program, the House Committee recommended terminating this program so that scarce development resources could be dedicated to the least-developed countries. The House Committee also noted that there is currently an undisbursed pipeline of more than $116 million under UECPA for active programs in India, Indonesia, Morocco, South Africa, Zimbabwe, and the Czech Republic.

$500,000 added by the Senate for research, training, and related activities to support conservation efforts in the Galapagos Islands. This project was funded at $1.2 million in FY 1999 under a different name, the Mitch McConnell Conservation Fund, after the Republican senator from Kentucky.

$500,000 added by the Senate for the United States Telecommunications Training Institute, a business/government program that trains telecommunications leaders in developing countries. Sponsorship by multinational telecommunications firms raises questions about the need for any government funding of this nonprofit organization.

$250,000 added in conference for the International Law Institute at Georgetown University. Funds are going to continue the Institute’s training and support of lawyers and judges in the Commonwealth of Independent States. One has to wonder why this private, well-endowed institution needs federal funds for this purpose.

VII. Interior

Nobody can dispute the awesome natural beauty of America. From the Smokey Mountains of Tennessee to the Big Sky of Montana to the golden beaches of California, the American landscape is as diverse as the American people. Appropriately, the Department of Interior (DOI) Appropriations Bill is as varied as the landscape, funding everything from land acquisition to protection of endangered species to an Automobile Heritage Area. Appropriators squeezed in 269 pork projects (64 added in conference) worth $332 million in this year’s bill, but that’s 20 percent less than last year’s total of $414 million.

$38,885,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $7,900,000 for the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge; $3,650,000 for the Denali National Park and Preserve; $750,000 for the Alaska Native Cultural Center; and $100,000 for the Unalaska Aerology building.

$10,000,000 added by the Senate for the National Constitution Center in the state of Senate appropriator Arlen Specter (R-Pa.). The Senate Committee agreed to spend the money this year, with the understanding that the center will be entirely self-sustaining and that no National Park Service funds will ever be required for operation of the facility. (See p. 25 regarding the FDR Memorial for a perfect example of the fallacy of this plan. See also p. 27 for more funds appropriated for the center.)

$9,710,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Slade Gorton (RWash.) and Senate appropriator Patty Murray (D-Wash.), including: $3,600,000 for Washington State hatchery improvements; $200,000 for spartina grass research; and $193,000 for Long Live the Kings (a nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving King Salmon.)

$9,116,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (DW. Va.), including: $3,600,000 for the Wheeling National Heritage Area; $975,000 for the Princeton Hardwood Center; $925,000 for the New River Gorge National Reserve; $250,000 for repairs to the Leetown Science Center; and $150,000 for the Canaan Valley Wildlife Refuge.

$7,419,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $1,500,000 for Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; $750,000 for the Native Hawaiian Culture and Arts Program; $500,000 for a hydrologic monitoring well for the United States Geological Survey; $400,000 for the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry; and $100,000 for Hawaii forests and communities.

$2,800,000 added by House Interior Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Ralph Regula (R-Ohio) for the National First Ladies Library. The site of this library is a former bar and brothel. News reports indicate that the chairman slipped $300,000 of the $2.8 million into the National Park Service budget in an attempt to get the library designated as a national park.

$1,400,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate appropriator Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas) for the Offshore Resource Technology Center at Texas A&M University. According to an investigative report, this grant will be used for high priority research that will involve deep development of mineral resources in the Gulf of Mexico. The private sector should paying for the research since it will be the beneficiary.

$500,000 added by the Senate for the Salt Lake City Olympic Tree Program in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Bennett (R-Utah). (It takes years and years of training for a tree to be ready to compete in the Olympics.)

$300,000 added by the House for the Automobile Heritage Area in Southeastern Michigan in the district of House appropriator Joe Knollenberg (R-Mich.). The project is expected to bring $100 million in added tourism into the state of Michigan. (Hint, maybe Michigan should be paying for this.)

The following projects were added in conference:

$3,000,000 for an expansion of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) Memorial in Washington, D.C. The House Committee stated that it was “shocked” to see a budget request to expand the memorial. The Committee reminded the National Park Service that private fundraising efforts fell short of projections and that FDR did not want a memorial larger than the size of his desk. While it’s too late for that, the Committee also said that expansion of the memorial would not be done at taxpayer expense.

$750,000 to convert the Weston State Hospital into a Civil War museum in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (D-W.Va.). This hospital was used during the Civil War before becoming an insane asylum. In the spring of 1999, local police officers and law enforcement officials used the vacant building as a paint ball battlefield, completely defacing the inside of the building.

$700,000 for the Saturn V Rocket at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama, in the district of House Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Cramer (D-Ala.). A private investor has offered to purchase the Space Center for $101 million with the guarantee to assume $15-$18 million worth of debt and invest up to $10 million in maintenance and improving exhibits. The state is reluctant to sell because it is one of Alabama’s most popular tourist attractions. (So, they have two choices: have the state fund the project or privatize the center. Either way, the federal government should not be involved.)

$400,000 added in conference for the Preble’s Jumping Mouse. Designated an official endangered species, this little 3-inch varmint has disrupted development in Colorado and southern Wyoming, creating monumental headaches for developers and citizens alike. $400,000 for the Admiral Theater in Bremerton, Washington, in the district of House Interior Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Norm Dicks (D-Wash.). This community theater recently received a $4.2 million renovation and is considered the cornerstone of the revitalization efforts of downtown Bremerton. (See p. 52 for additional funds for the theater.)

VIII. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

Total Labor/HHS pork for FY 2000 is $1 billion, up $442 million or 77 percent from the FY 1999 total of $573 million. Of the $1 billion total, $324 million or 32 percent, was added in conference. The increased spending and the outrageous number of projects added in conference can be attributed, in part, to the attitude of House Labor/HHS Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman John Porter (R-Ill.). While speaking to the National Health Council in April 1999, Rep. Porter explained how appropriators do their work: “We don’t pay attention to the president’s budget. We also don’t pay any attention to the Budget Committee’s budget. Don’t tell them.” The FY 2000 Labor/HHS bill reflects this sentiment.

$55,000,000 added by the Senate for school-to-work opportunities. Although there was a budget request, the House Committee allocated zero dollars for the program, claiming the funding level reflects the phaseout of the program as states assume full responsibility for institutionalizing their school-to-work systems, as outlined in the 1994 School-to-Work Opportunities Act.

$24,492,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Labor/HHS Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Arlen Specter (R-Pa.) and House appropriator John Murtha (D-Pa.), including: $10,000,000 for the National Constitution Center (see p. 23); $1,500,000 for the Pennsylvania Training Consortium; $1,000,000 for Seton Hill College; $892,000 for an environmental science program at Muhlenberg College; $600,000 for integrated product development at Lehigh University; $250,000 for arts education at Lafayette College; and $250,000 for educational programs at the Philadelphia Zoo.

$24,300,000 added in conference for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $4,000,000 for the Alaska Federal Health Care Access Network in Anchorage; $2,500,000 to train foreign workers (including Russians) in oil field management; $1,500,000 for the 2001 Special Olympics World Winter Games; $1,000,000 for a one-stop shopping demonstration for Catholic Social Services in Juneau; $750,000 for the Alaska Native Heritage Center in Anchorage; and $400,000 for the Alaska Department of Education’s summer reading program.

$19,500,000 added for projects in the state of Labor/HHS Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Tom Harkin (DIowa) and House appropriator Tom Latham (R-Iowa), including: $10,000,000 for the continuation of the Iowa public schools facilities repair demonstration project; $4,000,000 for continuation and expansion of the Iowa Communications Network statewide fiber optic demonstration project; and $200,000 for the City of Waterloo for expansion of Five Pals, a school-based injury prevention program.

$13,650,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Labor/HHS Appropriations subcommittee member Thad Cochran (R-Miss.) and House Labor/HHS Appropriations subcommittee member Roger Wicker (R-Miss.), including: $2,500,000 for the Mississippi Valley State University Rural Health, Safety, and Security Institute; $2,000,000 for the Tupelo School District for technology innovation; $1,650,000 for technology infrastructure at Rust College; and $500,000 for the Mississippi Delta Education Initiative.

$5,895,000 added in conference for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), including: $2,000,000 for the Springfield Workforce Development Center for model regional workforce development; $1,000,000 for the Vermont Department of Libraries in Montpelier; $400,000 for the University of Vermont’s Learning Gateway Program; and $170,000 for the Greater Burlington Industrial Corporation for a model preemployment counseling program. (That green in Vermont isn’t foliage; it’s your money.)

$3,750,000 added in conference by Labor/HHS Appropriations subcommittee member Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas): $2,000,000 for the Texas Tech University Center for Healthy Aging to study the care of older Americans; $1,000,000 for the University of Texas Medical Branch to combat bio-terrorism; and $750,000 to build a state-of-the-art facility at the Early Childhood Development Center at Texas A&M–Corpus Christi.

$3,550,000 added by Senate appropriator Pete Domenici (R-N.M.): $1,000,000 for the New Mexico Department of Education to fund student performance plans and drop-out prevention programs in schools; $1,000,000 for a joint New Mexico-Hawaii telehealth project in remote and rural areas; $750,000 to establish a Knowledge, Development, and Application demonstration project in Rio Arriba and Santa Fe counties to expand drug treatment and prevention efforts; $500,000 to train dislocated workers for new jobs in the telecommunications industry; and $300,000 to support the programs of Semos Unlimited, Inc., a nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving Hispanic culture by producing bilingual educational materials.

$3,000,000 added in conference in the district of House Labor/HHS Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman John Porter (R-Ill.) for the Lake County University Center.

$1,225,000 added in conference for projects in the district of House appropriator John Peterson (R-Pa.): $725,000 for technology innovation at Lock Haven University and $500,000 to continue a technology demonstration project at Mansfield University.

$1,000,000 added in conference by House appropriator Julian Dixon (D-Calif.) for the “Discovering the Tiniest Giants” exhibit at the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History. The exhibit will feature newly discovered dinosaur eggs from Argentina and, in the theme of “you can do it,” will encourage children to imagine themselves as scientists involved in the Patagonia expedition and the laboratory work that followed.

$900,000 added by Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations subcommittee member Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) for projects in San Francisco: $750,000 for the Life Learning Academy charter school and $150,000 for the Larkin Street Youth Center. $500,000 added in conference for a freshman retention program at Columbia College in Illinois. The college's news release credits Rep. Danny Davis (D-Ill.) as having “spearheaded the campaign to secure the funding.” (Wasting money like this, Rep. Davis should worry about his own retention.)

The Clinton Administration continues to request funds for technology programs in the Department of Education budget. Yet the House Committee remains concerned by the rapid increases in funding for these programs. The Committee directed the Department to provide it with an “overall plan for education technology, including all funds for technology available from the Department.” Almost two years after the Committee requested this plan, it has yet to appear. The Committee noted that “it is difficult to understand how such large sums can be requested and spent without any clear understanding as to the amounts of federal funding involved and any clear policy as to the role of federal funding vis-à-vis ongoing local funding in increasing the use of technology in the classroom.” While the House zeroed out funding for the following items, the Senate put the money right back in.

$16,000,000 for Ready to Learn Television, which develops and distributes educational videos for students and their parents. The House Committee noted that of the $25 million in funding appropriated for the program since FY 1997, only $3 million has been expended to date. Until funds from the past three fiscal years are drawn down, the Committee was unwilling to recommend a new appropriation for this program. In addition, the privately owned and operated Channel One already provides educational programming and videos to 12,000 schools and is viewed by 8 million school children daily — at no cost to taxpayers.

$10,000,000 for the Regional Technology in Education Consortia, which supports six regional programs of information and resource dissemination, professional development, and technical assistance. The House Committee did not recommend funding because it was disappointed with the lack of baseline data and outcome-based performance indicators for this program.

$2,000,000 for technology leadership activities. According to the Administration, funds will be used to disseminate the results of technology program evaluations, to prepare a framework for ongoing evaluations, and to provide leadership and assistance to schools in applying for and using the discounts of the Universal Service Fund. This program is to be coordinated with other agencies, but the Department of Education has not provided specific strategies for doing so. Given the limited discretionary budget, the House Committee chose to focus its resources on higher priority programs.

IX. Legislative Branch

Even though funding for the Legislative Branch increased by $107 million from 1999 to 2000, appropriators resisted the temptation of spending the additional money on pork-barrel projects. This appropriation has been clean for the second year in a row. Congratulations!

X. Military Construction

U.S. military forces are faced with many readiness and modernization problems. While money should be going to resolve these issues, funds are instead going to pork-barrel projects such as physical fitness centers. Pork in the FY 2000 Military Construction Appropriations Bill totaled $3.45 billion, or 235 percent greater than the $1 billion in FY 1999. Of the FY 2000 funding, $1.1 billion was unrequested and $2.3 billion was added to the President’s budget request. The Clinton Administration wanted to fund construction and family housing projects over a two-year period, but House and Senate appropriators rejected that recommendation and provided full funding of the projects in one year.

$34,630,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Conrad Burns (R-Mont.), including: $11,600,000 to construct a 144-room dormitory at Malestrom Air Force Base (AFB); $4,700,000 for a readiness center in Great Falls; and $1,450,000 for an Air National Guard base supply warehouse at Great Falls International Airport.

$21,934,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (R-Miss.), including: $8,900,000 for a C-130J simulator facility; $5,914,000 for a readiness center in Vicksburg; and $3,600,000 for a C-17 simulator building at Jackson International Airport.

$18,900,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Pete Domenici (R-N.M.): $9,700,000 for a new operations complex to house New Mexico Air National Guard operations and administration; $8,100,000 to replace a deteriorating runway at Cannon AFB; and $1,100,000 for a youth center upgrade and expansion at Holloman AFB.

$14,000,000 added by the Senate for the construction of the Arvin Cadet Physical Development Center at the U.S. Military Academy, New York. Although there was a budget request for this project, the House Committee concluded: “The Department of the Army estimates its current backlog of physical fitness centers to be $219 million. This backlog consists of 30 different projects at an average cost of $7.3 million. In spite of this backlog, the Army is in the midst of a three phase, multi-year project to revitalize, by partial replacement, the Arvin Center. The total cost of this project is estimated at $85 million, more than 10 times the average cost for a physical fitness center.” Thus, the House decided that funding should be deferred. The conferees capped total spending on the project at $63 million, citing a report that a proposed $17 million seismic upgrade (20 percent of the original cost) was neither costeffective nor feasible.

$8,652,000 added by Senate appropriator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.) to build a new armory in Northfield for the Vermont National Guard. The 94,649 square foot training facility is to be built at Norwich University, the nation’s oldest private military college, with the state of Vermont contributing a whopping $200,000. According to Vermont Adjutant General Martha Rainville, “This facility will allow the Vermont National Guard access to the latest technology, and also provide training and educational opportunities for students.”

$8,400,000 added by House appropriator Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio) for a National Guard Fighter Wing at Toledo Express Airport.

$6,300,000 for a new Visiting Officers Quarters at Niagara Falls. (Taxpayers are surely getting soaked with this appropriation.)

$6,000,000 added by Senate appropriator Richard Shelby (R-Ala.) for a medical training and dining facility at Dannelly Field near Montgomery.

$6,000,000 added by the Senate for the Red Butte Dam in the state of Senate appropriator Robert Bennett (R-Utah). This project was not requested by the Department of Defense, nor was it on the services’ Unfunded Priority List.

$4,560,000 added by the House for two projects at the Patuxent River Naval Air Warfare Center in the district of House appropriator Steny Hoyer (D-Md.): $3,060,000 to build a testing and evaluation facility for the Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System Mark III Ship Air Mission system, and $1,500,000 for an indoor firing range, so that law enforcement personnel will no longer have to use temporary firing ranges in Quantico, Virginia.

$4,350,000 added by the House for a physical fitness training center at Camp Kyle in Korea.

$500,000 added by the Senate for the design phase of rebuilding the Military History Institute and Army Heritage Museum in Carlisle in the state of Senate appropriator Arlen Specter (R-Pa.). This money, according to the Senate subcommittee, will make “the proposed institute a first class facility.” (The planned second class museum will have to be built elsewhere.)

XI. Transportation

Transportation appropriators started the new millennium the same way they finished the last one, with earmarks galore. In FY 2000, appropriators found a new program to divide amongst themselves – Job Access and Reverse Commute Grants. This “competitive” grants program was supposed to provide transportation for former welfare recipients to help in their transition to a working life. Congressional appropriators used it instead for their own purposes. Department of Transportation (DOT) officials don’t even know yet whether any of the grants will have any bearing on former welfare recipients. The appropriators earmarked two thirds, or $50 million of this $75 million program, leaving very little for competitive grants and program administration. While Trans-pork is down to $1 billion from last year’s $1.2 billion, it still went to a select group. In FY 2000, 78 percent of all statespecific pork was confiscated by 6 percent of the members of Congress — the 31 senators and representatives on the Transportation Appropriations Subcommittees.

$52,500,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Richard Shelby (R-Ala.) and House appropriators Sonny Callahan (R-Ala.), Robert Aderholdt (R-Ala.), and Robert Cramer (D-Ala.), including: $15,000,000 for the Transportation Research Institute; $5,000,000 for the Mobile waterfront terminal complex; $3,500,000 for the Huntsville Space and Rocket Center intermodal center; $1,000,000 for Troy State University; $500,000 for Cullman buses; and $100,000 for Gees Bend ferry facilities.

$31,455,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska): $10,000,000 for Alaska Railroad Rehabilitation; $8,000,000 for the Unalaska pier; $1,155,000 for the Whittier intermodal facility and pedestrian overpass; $1,000,000 for the Fairbanks Riverwalk Centennial Bridge community connector project; and $500,000 for the Central Kenai Peninsula public transportation task force.

$25,010,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Frank Lautenberg (D-N.J.) and House appropriator Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.), including: $5,000,000 for New Jersey Transit alternative fuel buses; $3,400,000 for the Delaware Water Gap National Recreational Area; $1,650,000 for Newark intermodal and arena access improvements; $1,000,000 for the West Trenton rail project; and $300,000 for Monmouth County pedestrian improvements.

$15,075,000 added for projects in the district of House Appropriations Committee Ranking Member David Obey (DWisc.): $12,000,000 for the South Route 29 development corridor, which stretches from Chippewa Falls to Elk Mound; $1,500,000 for Wausau–Stevens Point–Wisconsin Rapids intelligent transportation systems; $1,000,000 for City of Superior and Douglas County intelligent transportation systems; and $575,000 for a La Pointe ferry terminal.

$14,650,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (R-Mont.), including: $2,200,000 for a Highway 323 upgrade between Alzada and Ekalaka; $1,000,000 for intelligent transportation systems; $1,000,000 for Billings Logan Airport; $400,000 for the Kalispell Bus Barn Facility; and $400,000 for geosynthetic material research at the Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University.

$13,400,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Christopher “Kit” Bond (R-Mo.), including: $3,500,000 for buses and bus facilities statewide; $1,000,000 for Branson intelligent transportation systems; $700,000 for St. Louis Lambert Airport; $500,000 for a truck driver center initiative at Crowder College; and $500,000 for Jackson County buses and bus facilities. When asked about his appetite for pork, the senator quipped, “If they think it’s pork it’s an awfully healthy diet for the people of Missouri and I am proud to participate in it. Just tell ’em in the next batch, I’ll bring my own barbecue sauce.” (It’s always nice to gorge yourself at someone else’s expense.)

$11,000,000 added for projects in the district of House appropriator Jack Kingston (R-Ga.): $7,000,000 for the Sidney Lanier Highway Bridge in Brunswick; $3,500,000 for the Chatam Area Transit Bus Transfer Center and buses; and $500,000 for a water taxi in Savannah. The water taxi will be used primarily to whisk tourists from Savannah to Hutchinson Island.

$10,000,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Bennett (R-Utah), including: $3,000,000 for Salt Lake City intelligent transportation systems; $2,500,000 for Salt Lake City Olympic bus facilities; and $1,500,000 for the Utah Department of Transportation and the Utah Transportation Center to conduct research of load capacities of deteriorating bridges.

$9,035,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), including: $2,700,000 for the Burlington mulitmodal center; $1,385,000 for Job Access and Reverse Commute Grants for the state of Vermont; $400,000 for the Burlington North Street revitalization project; and $250,000 for the Killington-Sherburne satellite bus facility.

$7,700,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Tom Harkin (D-Iowa), including: $3,500,000 for a Cedar Rapids intermodal facility; $700,000 for Ames transit facility expansion; and $300,000 for a Native Vegetation Center at the University of Northern Iowa.

$7,250,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $2,250,000 for Hawaii buses and bus facilities; $1,500,000 for intra-island ferry service from Barbers Point to Honolulu Harbor; and $1,100,000 for the Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge.

$6,600,000 added for projects in the district of House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member John Olver (D-Mass.), including: $3,600,000 for a Pittsfield intermodal center; $1,350,000 for a Pittsfield economic development authority electric bus program; $500,000 for Greenfield/Montague buses; and $500,000 for a Westfield intermodal transportation facility.

$4,400,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House appropriator Jerry Lewis (R-Calif.): $3,000,000 for the San Bernardino train station; $800,000 for the Redlands trolley project; and $600,000 for San Bernardino Reverse Commute and Job Access Grants.

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for the Limehouse Bridge in the state of Senate appropriator Ernest “Fritz” Hollings (D-S.C.). The bridge crosses the Intracoastal Waterway and ties Johns Island to the mainland and U.S. Highway 17S on the north. The bridge is used by patrons of golf resorts on Kiawah and Seabrook Islands.

$1,000,000 added in conference for Columbus-port-of-entry realignment by Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Pete Domenici (R-N.M.). New Mexico Secretary of Transportation Pete Rahn tried to reject the funding because he did not want the state to be liable for 25 percent of the cost of this unnecessary project.

$500,000 added by the House for the Elliot Bay Water Taxi in Seattle, Washington. A 1999 press release crowed that supporters of the “highly successful” Elliot Bay Water Taxi met with federal leaders with the hopes that they would receive additional federal funding. The press release went on to brag about the costeffectiveness of the taxi and the number of passengers that have opted to use it instead of using an overburdened bridge. (If it’s that good, why does it need federal funding?)

XII. Treasury, Postal Service, General Government

The battle to fund courthouse construction is reminiscent of the classic sword fights of yesteryear. In a constant game of parry and thrust, each sword fighter gains and loses ground. In fiscal 2000, the forces of good were successful in halting any additional courthouse construction. The General Services Administration’s request for courthouse funds was rejected by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). But the House Committee still fought a war of words by sarcastically chastising the Administration’s apparent two-faced approach to law enforcement: “The [OMB] Director also suggested that one of those areas of higher priority was law enforcement. Apparently the Director doesn’t understand that after individuals are arrested and before they can be incarcerated, there has to be a place to try them to determine if they are guilty as charged.” The Committee apparently doesn’t understand that there are already plenty of courthouses, and if any additional courthouses are to be built, they should be in the areas with the greatest need, not the greatest number of appropriators. Total pork-barrel spending for FY 2000 was $96 million, or 79 percent less than last year’s total of $469 million.

$35,000,000 added by the Senate for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consolidation in the state of Senate Treasury/Postal Services Appropriations subcommittee member Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.). For years, the FDA has been requesting a consolidated campus. But one campus is supposed to be built in one Maryland county, and another campus is supposed to be built in yet another Maryland county where a laboratory facility already exists. This is wasteful spending that benefits suburban counties in Maryland, not consolidation.

$12,233,000 added by the Senate for border station projects in the state of Senate appropriator Conrad Burns (R-Mont.): $11,480,000 for Sweetgrass and $753,000 for Roosville.

$9,200,000 added by Senate appropriator Pete Domenici (R-N.M.) for two firearm ranges at the Artesia Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. A press release by the senator bragged about the inclusion of these projects in the final bill.

$500,000 added by the House to undertake a study and conceptual design of a combined federal, state, and local law enforcement facility in St. Petersburg in the district of House Appropriations Committee Chairman C.W. Bill Young (R-Fla.).

XIII. Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies

The FY 2000 VA/HUD Appropriations Bill covers spending through the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, as well as the Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This year it funded a wide range of activities requested by individual members, including research into windstorms and animal waste management, the renovation of a local fire station, experiments in extreme weather conditions, a machine aimed at growing plants in space, and shipbottom painting. This year, the VA/HUD bill contained 832 projects without budget requests, which is an increase of 45 percent from FY 1999. The total of $1.48 billion was an increase of $693 million, or 47 percent, over FY 1999 VA/HUD pork, which totaled $789 million.

Once again, Congress earmarked funds for Community Development Block Grants (CDBGs). The CDBG program was originally established to provide formula grants to aid low- and moderate-income households, eliminate urban blight, and meet emergency needs. But instead of going to the poor, a portion of this money was earmarked for projects in some of the richest towns in America. In fact, $21 million was earmarked for museums, theaters, and performing arts centers. Out of the 447 CDBG grants, 323 (72 percent) were added in conference. The remaining 124 were added by the Senate. This closed-door deal making benefited the privileged few at the expense of the many.

$434,500,000 added by the Senate for the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS), which includes $234,000,000 for President Clinton’s pet program, Americorps. The House proposed eliminating funding and terminating CNCS because its flagship volunteer program, Americorps, costs taxpayers $27,000 annually per “volunteer.”

$41,750,000 added for projects in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman James Walsh (R-N.Y.), including: $18,500,000 for continued clean water improvements at Lake Onandaga; $10,000,000 for the Cayuga County Regional Application Center; $1,000,000 for the University of Syracuse for rehabilitation and community redevelopment of the Marshall Street area; $500,000 for renovations to the O.M. Edwards Building in Syracuse; $450,000 for rehabilitation and conversion of part of the former NYNEX building in Syracuse into a parking garage; $450,000 for renovations to and revitalization of the Everson Museum in Syracuse; $450,000 for the acquisition and remediation of the Contento scrapyard in Cortland County; $250,000 for renovations to the Media Unit Building in Syracuse; and $150,000 for the Schine Theater in Auburn.

$37,050,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Christopher “Kit” Bond (R-Mo.), including: $14,000,000 for infrastructure needs at the University of Missouri; $3,300,000 for the Missouri Division of State Parks for water and sewer improvement needs; $2,500,000 for Kansas City Memorial renovation and restoration; $1,750,000 for the Kansas City Riverfront Project to demonstrate innovative methods of removing contaminated debris; $1,500,000 for construction of the American National Fish and Wildlife Museum in Springfield; $1,500,000 for the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute’s Missouri watershed initiative project to link economic and environmental data with ambient water quality; $1,000,000 for the Animal Waste Management Consortium through the University of Missouri to supplement research, demonstration, and outreach projects associated with animal waste; and $500,000 for infrastructure improvements to the Union Corporate Center in Union City.

$36,525,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert Byrd (DW. Va.) and House VA/HUD Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Alan Mollohan (D-W.Va.), including: $4,000,000 for Wheeling Jesuit University for the construction of a science/computer teaching center; $1,325,000 for ongoing activities at the Canaan Valley Institute; $1,000,000 for the design and construction of city park facilities in the city of Shinnston; $900,000 for the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Foundation in Lewisburg for the construction of a multi-use museum and cultural education center; $500,000 for the town of Kimball for the restoration of the Kimball War Memorial; $300,000 for the Institute for Software Research in Fairmont for capital equipment, operational expenses, and program development; and $225,000 each for a museum and cultural education center in Calhoun and Gilmer counties.

$26,000,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Arlen Specter (R-Pa.) and House appropriators John Peterson (RPa.) and John Murtha (D-Pa.), including: $2,900,000 for continued development of the Three Rivers Wet Weather Demonstration Program in Allegheny County; $1,500,000 for an exhibit on astronomy at the Franklin Institute for Development; $800,000 for revitalization of downtown Wilkes-Barre; $500,000 for facilities renovation and exhibition development for the Johnstown Area Heritage Association; $500,000 for the expansion of the Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia; $500,000 for rehabilitation of downtown Indiana, Pa.; $360,000 for the Borough of New Hope for redevelopment and revitalization of the site formerly known as Union Camp; and $200,000 for the Fairmount Park Commission to identify, design, implement, and evaluate environmental education exhibits.

$22,950,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Anne Northup (R-Ky.), and House appropriator Harold Rogers (R-Ky.), including: $3,000,000 for North Jessamine County wastewater system improvements; $1,500,000 for the Louisville Science Center; $1,000,000 for a satellite telescope at Western Kentucky University; $500,000 for the American Cave and Karst Center in Gart County; $500,000 for the Kentucky Highlands Investment Corporation in London for expansion of a venture capital fund; $500,000 for the Small Public Drinking Water System Technology Center at Western Kentucky University; $250,000 for the Pine Mountain Park Amphitheater in Bell County; and $30,000 for the Fancy Farm water system.

$22,350,000 added for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $3,500,000 for the University of Alaska–Fairbanks Museum, which has held such educational exhibits as “Women of the Alaska Gold Rush,” “Not Just a Pretty Face — Evolution of a Doll Collection,” and “Fly Fishing and Book Making”; $1,700,000 to refurbish an auditorium at Sheldon Jackson College; $1,000,000 for the Challenger Learning Center of Alaska in Kenai; and $400,000 for the Small Water Systems Technology Assistance Center at the University of Alaska–Sitka.

$19,725,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (R-Miss.) and House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Roger Wicker (R-Miss.), including: $5,200,000 for wastewater infrastructure evaluation and improvements in Jackson; $1,200,000 for the city of Madison to renovate an historic gateway; $1,000,000 for the renovation of a building at Mississippi State University; $500,000 for renovations and related improvements for buildings at Whitworth College; and $200,000 for the town of Sardis for economic development and related infrastructure and recreational facilities.

$17,600,000 added for projects in the state of House appropriators Frank Wolf (R-Va.) and Jim Moran (D-Va.), including: $4,000,000 for continued development of combined sewer overflow improvement in Lynchburg; $3,000,000 for the Water Environmental Research Foundation in Alexandria; $500,000 for George Mason University to develop and enhance the National Center for Technology and the Law; $400,000 for the development, design, and implementation of a research effort on tributyltin-based ship-bottom paint at Old Dominion University; $300,000 for the implementation of the Potomac River Visions Initiative through Friends of the Potomac; and $250,000 for the city of Virginia Beach for the Virginia Marine Science Museum’s phase three plan.

$17,050,000 added for projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Conrad Burns (R-Mont.), including: $4,000,000 for the Lockwood water and sewer district for implementation of its wastewater collection, treatment and disposal plan; $2,000,000 for the Center on Life in Extreme Thermal Environments at Montana State University in Bozeman; $1,500,000 for the Big Timber wastewater treatment facility; and $500,000 for the Research Development Enterprise in Missoula for the advancement of university research activities.

$13,850,000 added for projects in the district of House appropriator Jerry Lewis (R-Calif.), including: $4,000,000 for a space radiation program at Loma Linda University Hospital; $500,000 for construction of the Big Bear Discover Center (according to its website, the center will combine education and entertainment to produce “edutainment” programming and a positive environment for its customers); $425,000 each for the recreational needs of the city of Highland and the Yucaipa Valley Regional Soccer Complex; $250,000 to rehabilitate the Fogelsong Pool in Barstow; and $50,000 to complete the mural project in Twenty-Nine Palms.

$12,200,000 added for projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) and House appropriator Steny Hoyer (D-Md.), including: $2,000,000 for the Earth Alert program for a test of the system throughout the state of Maryland; $1,500,000 for the University of Maryland (Eastern Shore) in Princess Anne for the development of a Coastal Ecology Teaching and Research Center; and $500,000 to study aircraft cabin air quality at the Education and Research Center for Occupational Safety and Health in Baltimore.

$11,425,000 added for projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Frank Lautenberg (D-N.J.) and House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.), including: $5,000,000 for combined sewer overflow requirements of the Passaic Valley Sewage Commission; $500,000 for downtown revitalization in Gloucester County; $350,000 for the Morris Area Girl Scout Council in Randolph for upgrading facilities at Jockey Hollow Campground; and $200,000 for facilities renovation of the Park Performing Arts Center in Union City.

$11,300,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Ernest “Fritz” Hollings (D-S.C.) and House appropriator James Clyburn (D-S.C.), including: $4,000,000 for continued development of the water-supply needs of the Lake Marion Regional Water Agency; $500,000 for planning and construction of the Parker’s Ferry Community Center in Charleston County; and $100,000 for the town of Santee for construction of the Santee Cultural Arts and Visitor’s Center.

$11,000,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), including: $2,700,000 for a wastewater treatment plant in Pownal; $1,300,000 for a new wastewater treatment plant in Cabot; $1,000,000 for the renovation of the Flynn Theater, Vermont’s “premier performing arts center”; $350,000 to replace a former Rite Aid building site with a pedestrian park; and $100,000 for the Bennington Museum, which focuses on Vermont decorative and fine arts, Bennington pottery, and the art and life of America's favorite folk artist, Grandma Moses.

$8,575,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Judd Gregg (R-N.H.) and House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member John Sununu (R-N.H.), including: $2,000,000 for wastewater improvements in Epping; $2,000,000 for Berlin water infrastructure improvements; $375,000 for the town of Winchester to tear down an old leather tannery; $100,000 for the city of Nashua for a riverfront project; and $75,000 for the Laconia Area Land Trust.

$7,200,000 added for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $2,500,000 out of the Space Science budget for the Bishop Museum (which offers exhibits on the music and dance of Hawaii and garden tours of the “Plants of Paradise”) and $500,000 for the EPA to help Hawaiian communities rehabilitate native fishponds.

$3,300,000 added for projects in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio): $1,900,000 for wastewater improvements associated with the Toledo Waste Equalization Basin and $1,400,000 for the city of Toledo for improvements to central city neighborhoods and rejuvenation near the downtown historic commercial district.

$1,050,000 added in conference for projects in the district of House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member David Price (D-N.C.): $600,000 for the city of Durham for the Durham Regional Finance Center to acquire and renovate office space; $250,000 for the town of Chapel Hill for the activities of the Community Land Trust in Orange County; and $200,000 for development activities for the Eagle Community Development Corporation in Durham.

$1,000,000 added by the House in the district of House Agriculture Committee Chairman Larry Combest (R-Texas) for the “Garden Machine” at Texas Tech University, a NASA unit that raises plants under different conditions with the hope of raising them in space.

$1,000,000 added in conference by House VA/HUD Appropriations subcommittee member Rodney Frelinghuysen (RN. J.) for the Child Health Institute of New Jersey. The institute has already received $5.9 million from both Johnson and Johnson and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (With private grants like these, federal funding is not needed.)

$750,000 for a Purdue University project that will explore ways to deal with animal waste, secured by Rep. Steven Buyer (R-Ind.). The money will help fund a two-year effort by the newly formed National Center for Animal Waste Management Technologies to discover ways to reduce problems posed by livestock manure. Ron Turco, director of Purdue University’s Environmental Sciences Institute, said of the project, “We are trying to solve some real problems with the use of appropriate technologies.” Turco said Purdue officials talked with Rep. Buyer about the animal waste project and the possibility of getting federal funds.

$400,000 added by House appropriator Lucille Roybal-Allard (DCalif.): $200,000 for a community center for senior citizens and at-risk youth in Maywood; $100,000 for the East Los Angeles Community Union for the renovation of an industrial park for retail and business use; $80,000 for the redevelopment of the Sears and prison industrial sites; $10,000 for a telemedicine clinic program in East Los Angeles; and $10,000 for a street archway in Chinatown.

$300,000 for the Admiral Theater in Bremerton, Washington, in the district of House appropriator Norm Dicks (D-Wash.). This community theater recently received a $4.2 million renovation and is considered the cornerstone of the revitalization efforts of downtown Bremerton. Rep. Dicks also secured $400,000 for this theater in the Interior Appropriations Bill (see p. 26).

Historical Trends

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