1997 Congressional Pig Book | Citizens Against Government Waste

1997 Congressional Pig Book

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1997

Summary

The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition.

Introduction

To use it or not to use it, that is the question. For the first time in history, the President has the line-item veto. Will he use it to cut deals or cut pork? Therein lies the rub.

Since 1990, Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) has been scouring the 13 annual appropriations bills for pork and publishing the Congressional Pig Book Summary to both educate and outrage the public. CAGW has also hoped that one result of these efforts would be passage of line-item veto legislation. There is a new law in town, and the sheriff is at the White House. With the stroke of his pen, President Clinton can now wipe out any wasteful line item he chooses during the rest of his term in office.

With this new power of the pen comes expanded watchdog responsibilities on the part of taxpayers and groups like CAGW. In order to maximize the positive effects of the lineitem veto, CAGW is inaugurating the “Pork Patrol.” Just like the “Prize Patrol” arrives at some lucky American’s doorstep with a $10 million check, CAGW’s new Pork Patrol will arrive at the doorstep of America’s most famous address detailing millions of dollars – in pork. The Pork Patrol will give taxpayers – and the President – specific targets to strike in the fight against wasteful spending. In coordination with the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition, CAGW will be scrutinizing every appropriations, tax, and entitlement bill that can be subject to the line-item veto and drawing up a list of vulnerable pork-barrel items. The Pork Patrol will also be issuing to members of Congress citations for excessive spending, as well as expressing its admiration with certificates for heroic acts to stop the bad guys from feeding at the public trough.

CAGW’s 1997 Congressional Pig Book Summary details the latest round of procedural pork-barrel spending. The second session of the 104th Congress was responsible for more than $14.5 billion in pork, which was 16 percent higher than the first session.

This upward trend is disappointing, but not surprising. In a confidential memo before the 1996 elections, the House leadership urged appropriators to give special consideration to funding “district items” for vulnerable freshmen. The leadership was concerned with California’s key role in the presidential elections.

A state-by-state breakdown shows the biggest winners in the pork-barrel derby were the states of influential appropriators. The top four states in per capita pork were Alaska ($114.23), Hawaii ($91.30), Montana ($49.29), and Oregon ($32.39).

Even though total pork has increased from last year, pork in certain appropriations bills has decreased. Three appropriations bills saw a decline in the amount of procedural pork from FY 1996. The biggest decline was in Foreign Operations (23 percent) followed by Defense (13 percent), and Transportation (six percent).

By far, the biggest increase was Treasury/Postal (122 percent) followed by Energy and Water (20 percent), and Agriculture and Military Construction (each at eight percent). USDA officials each year try to stop unrequested and unauthorized special research grants, and each year they are thwarted by congressional appropriators. This year’s Pig Book highlights money for agriculture research that is producing low-fat snacks, grants for the collection of demographic information for Vermont malls, and a line-item for a research institute whose work was supposed to be completed by September 1996.

The 241 projects profiled here will cost taxpayers more than $1 billion – only a fraction of the $14.5 billion in pork hidden away in the 13 appropriations bills. All meet at least one of CAGW’s seven criteria, but most satisfy at least two:

  • Requested by only one chamber of Congress;
  • Not specifically authorized;
  • Not competitively awarded;
  • Not requested by the President;
  • Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the previous year’s funding;
  • Not the subject of congressional hearings; or
  • Serves only a local or special interest.

I. Agriculture

Agriculture pork is never difficult to find. Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) special research grants continue to be a popular way to bring home the bacon. Year after year, hundreds of unrequested and unauthorized grants are funded through CSREES. Even though USDA officials only requested $5.6 million for CSREES special research grants, Congress appropriated more than $49 million, or 875 percent more than requested by USDA. Overall agriculture pork is $158 million, or more than eight percent greater than in FY 1996.

In testimony before House Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, USDA officials tried to halt funding for the following unrequested and unauthorized CSREES special research grants:

$3,536,000 for wood utilization research (Maine, Mich., Minn., N.C., & Ore.). Since 1985, $38,773,000 has been appropriated for such research. (How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if he had $3,536,000?)

$1,940,000 added by the House for the North Central Biotechnology Initiative. This project was established in 1995 to be a “competitive” grants program. It wasn’t, so the Department of Agriculture proposed no funds for this project in FY 1997, and USDA officials stated that, “[k]eeping with the Administrations’s policy of awarding research grants competitively, no further federal funding for this grant is requested.” Since 1995, $4,000,000 has been appropriated for this program.

$500,000 for the Viticulture Consortium (Calif. & N.Y.). The consortium is a joint operation between the University of California and Cornell University to enhance United States grape farming. In an attempt to justify this project, the House Agriculture Committee argued that, “many European countries are expending significant research dollars on viticulture and for the [U.S.] to remain competitive worldwide, research is our best opportunity.” (If these are the grapes, the national debt is the wrath.)

$473,000 for human nutrition research in Iowa. Part of this research money has been used to develop low-fat snack foods. Since 1991, $2,716,000 has been appropriated for such research. (Congress should cut out its own fat and let the chips fall where they may in private sector research.)

$445,000 for improved fruit practices. The goal of this research is solely to benefit the state of Michigan, even though the state already is ranked fifth in total U.S. fruit production. According to USDA officials, “The principal researcher believes Michigan’s need for this research is to develop and maintain/expand their tree fruit and small fruits industry.” Since 1994, $1,384,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$395,000 added for rice modeling research. USDA officials testified that they aren’t even sure how much has been spent on this research: “The work actually began about four years ago, and the amount for total federal research grants from various sources have totaled roughly $2 million prior to this year.”

$364,000 added by the Senate for multi-commodity research in the state of then-Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.). Since 1993, $1,310,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$312,000 added by the Senate/conference committee for the Babcock Institute for international dairy research and development. A discrepancy between the Senate and conference reports could not be explained by congressional staff. Even though USDA officials expected this research to be completed by September 1996, money was appropriated for the institute for FY 1997. Since 1992, $1,024,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$250,000 added by the Senate for floriculture research in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). Funding for this project continues even though USDA officials predicted that the market research would be completed in fiscal year 1996 and specifically stated that this program should be funded by the state of Hawaii. Since 1989, $2,262,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$250,000 for biotechnology research. Money for this project was appropriated for FY 1997 even though grant proposals haven’t yet been submitted for the $217,000 in appropriated funds for FY 1996.

$165,000 added by the Senate for projects in the State of Senate Agriculture Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Kerrey (D-Neb.), including: $64,000 for non-food agricultural products; $59,000 for sustainable agriculture systems; and $42,000 for a food processing center.

$116,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriators Jim Jeffords (R-Vt.) and Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), including: $84,000 for maple research; and $32,000 for the Center for Rural Studies, which has been used in the past to help a retail shopping mall attract new business and fill vacant space.

$92,000 added by the Senate for the Global Marketing Support Service in the state of Senate Agriculture Appropriations subcommittee member Dale Bumpers (D-Ark.). The object of this research, according to testimony, is to identify potential foreign markets for Arkansas products. Since 1994, $231,000 has been appropriated for such research. (This is a redundant program since everyone already knows Arkansas’ largest product for foreigners is campaign contributions to the White House.)

$63,000 added by the Senate for dairy and meat goat research. Even though non-federal funding is strongly encouraged (but not required), to date, such funding has not been secured. Since 1983, $1,080,000 has been appropriated for such research.

Other morsels of Agriculture pork include:

$6,000,000 added by the Senate for the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va.).

$5,000,000 added by the Senate in the state of then-Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.) for the Forest Ecosystem laboratory at the University of Oregon.

$4,140,000 added by the Senate for the Poultry Science Facility at Auburn University in the state of Senate appropriator Richard Shelby (R-Ala.).

$2,700,000 added by the Senate for the Animal Resource Wing at South Dakota State University (SDSU) in the state of SDSU alumni and Agriculture Committee member/Senate Minority Leader Thomas Daschle (D-S.D.). (Be true to your school – not the taxpayers.)

$596,000 added by the Senate in the state of Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Dale Bumpers (D-Ark.), including: $197,000 for beef producers improvement; $150,000 for a fish farming experiment laboratory; $150,000 for aquaculture research; and $99,000 for an extension specialist.

$564,000 for Agricultural Development in the American Pacific. This research is conducted at five universities – the American Samoa Community College, College of Micronesia, Northern Marianas College, University of Guam and the University of Hawaii – to collaborate and enhance their impact on agriculture and communities. Since 1994, $1,716,000 has been appropriated for such research.

II. Commerce, Justice, State, and Judiciary

This appropriation gives members the opportunity to add special research grants to the budget of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Perhaps the most egregious example of misguided funding is that of the Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii. An audit showed that the OI has not used its grant money properly, yet funds continue to be appropriated. That and other items added by the Senate without a budget request are listed below:

$12,000,000 for the National Undersea Research Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

$4,000,000 for the Gambling Impact Study Commission.

$1,250,000 added by the Senate for programs of the Oceanic Institute (OI) in Hawaii, the state of Senate appropriator Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $750,000 for Hawaiian fisheries development; and $500,000 for the Hawaii Stock Management Plan. An audit by the USDA revealed that the OI had misused the grant money it had received from the USDA. According to the USDA Inspector General, OI “did not comply with Federal regulations or with the terms of the grant agreements. OI used grant funds for purposes that were not specified in its grant budgets and that were not approved by ARS [Agricultural Research Service] or CSREES [Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service]. It also made unallowable procurements with related parties and did not always perform required cost analyses, document the bases for contractor selection, or justify the lack of competition when procuring goods and services.” In spite of this report, the same amounts were appropriated in both FY 1996 and FY 1997.

$330,000 for Stellar Sea Lion research of the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Consortium.

The House added the following items for which there was no budget request:

$785,000 for bluefish/striped bass research by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

$300,000 for Gulf of Mexico mariculture.

III. Defense

The size of the defense budget is not necessarily a good guide in determining whether or not the country can be adequately defended. The $8.9 billion in pork for FY 1997 illustrates that the Pentagon can continue to cut spending without jeopardizing national security. Senator John McCain (R-Ariz.), Vietnam War hero and congressional porkbuster, has stated, “Wasting scarce defense resources on pork barrel defense programs that haven’t been authorized and often appear in the dead of night during closed conferences, harms our nation’s security and puts our young men and women in uniform at risk.” The good news is that overall defense pork is down more than 13 percent from FY 1996 – a trend worth continuing.

$70,000,000 added in conference for defense-wide research, development, test, and evaluation of space-based laser.

$45,000,000 added by the Senate for the SWATH oceanographic ship in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). A May 1996 Navy report described the proposed ship as “excessively costly and potentially risky.” An official at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography said that since the University of Hawaii initially lost the bid on the ship, “they’re doing it the old fashioned way, with the pork barrel…”.

$34,000,000 added in conference for the Javelin missile project. A preliminary GAO report in September 1996 expressed reservations about the Javelin missile project: “[t]he Army has not demonstrated that Javelin’s design is sufficiently stable for a multi-year contract, and tests have not shown that the weapon to be produced during full-rate production is suitable for combat.”

$28,500,000 added by the House for Darkstar, a highly classified unmanned high-altitude aerial vehicle. A high-profile crash in April 1996 has made this craft a controversial Pentagon project. (Taxpayers will be Grateful when this project is Dead.)

$25,000,000 added by the Senate for High Performance Computing Sustainment and Operations for non-military sites. According to the conference report, there have been many delays that the conferees are concerned will impede the acquisition of the most modern equipment.

$22,000,000 added by the Senate for C-XX (medium range) aircraft.

$15,000,000 added by the House for natural gas vehicles.

$5,400,000 added by the Senate for the Hawaii Small Business Development Center in the state of Senate Defense Appropriations subcommittee member Daniel Inouye (DHawaii).

$5,000,000 added in conference for Agile Port Demonstration. $5,000,000 added in conference for the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence.

$5,000,000 added in conference for National Guard ski-equipped C-130 aircraft.

$4,000,000 added by the House for the research, development, test, and evaluation of a Testbed at the Bremerton shipyard in the district of House Defense Appropriations subcommittee member Norman Dicks (D-Wash.).

$4,000,000 added in conference for the Discovery Center of Science and Technology.

$2,000,000 added by the Senate for SLICE in the state of Senate Defense Appropriations subcommittee member Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii). SLICE is an experimental ship designed for commercial and military use to slice through the water with less wave resistance. Even though a majority of the funding to build the boat came through the Navy, the manufacturer retains the right to sell the boat back to the federal government. $1,000,000 added in conference for military cargo methods.

IV. District of Columbia

The District of Columbia’s problems run a lot deeper than mere pork-barrel spending. An inspection of the D.C. Appropriations bill reveals that there is very little activity through which pork could actually be funneled. Criticizing the District of Columbia for pork-barrel spending would be tantamount to complaining about the food service on the Titanic.

V. Energy and Water

If appropriators used as much ENERGY in resisting the siren song of pork, tax dollars wouldn’t be flowing like WATER. More than $120 million of Army Corps of Engineers pork was funded in FY 1997, as compared to $82 million in FY 1996. One “critical need” addressed by these extra funds was the prospect of a few select vulnerable Republican freshmen losing their seats. To help preserve the majority, House Republican leaders insisted that “district items” be funded.

$18,450,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of then-Senate Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member J. Bennett Johnston (D-La.), including: $10,000,000 for the Energy and Applications and Environmental Technology Applications Project at the University of Southwestern Louisiana; $4,750,000 for Lake Pontchartrain stormwater discharge; $3,400,000 Red River Emergency Bank Protection; $200,000 for the Amite River; and $100,000 for Ouachita River Levees. (The open floodgates of tax dollars may now be closed upon the senator’s retirement.)

$10,000,000 added in conference for projects in the state of then-House Energy and Water Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman John Myers (R-Ind.), including: $7,000,000 for the Center for Technological Research with Industry at the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology (in the former congressman’s district); and $3,000,000 for the Indiana University School of Medicine, the alma mater of the former congressman.

$9,500,000 added in conference for the Energy, Minerals, and Materials Research Center at the University of Alabama, the alma mater of House Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Tom Bevill (D-Ala.).

$3,992,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $3,302,000 for general construction in Dillingham; $500,000 for coastal studies navigation improvement; $100,000 for the Kenai River; and $90,000 for the Sitka Lightering Facility.

$3,500,000 added by the House for general construction of the Canaveral Harbor sand bypass in the district of vulnerable freshman David Weldon (R-Fla.).

$3,400,000 added by the House for projects in the district of freshman House Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Frank Riggs (R-Calif.), including: $2,500,000 for Humboldt Harbor and Bay; $300,000 for Noyo Harbor Breakwater; $250,000 for Fort Bragg Reclamation study; $250,000 for Del Norte/Crescent City wastewater reclamation; and $100,000 for Dry Creek (Middletown).

$3,000,000 added by the House for an Army Corps of Engineers’ general construction project in Saylersville, Kentucky, in the district of House Energy and Water Appropriations subcommittee member Harold Rogers (R-Ky.).

$2,600,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House appropriator Jack Kingston (R-Ga.), including: $2,500,000 for general construction at Tybee Island; and $100,000 for Savannah/Chatham County Regional Flood Control.

$650,000 added by the Senate for general investigation of the St. Louis Harbor in the state of Senate appropriator Christopher Bond (R-Mo.).

$600,000 added for Army Corps of Engineers’ general investigation projects in the district of vulnerable freshman Frank LoBiondo (R-N.J.), including: $200,000 for Brigantine Inlet to Great Egg Harbor Inlet; $200,000 for Great Egg Harbor Inlet to Townsends Inlet; and $200,000 for Townsends Inlet to Cape May Inlet.

$100,000 added by the House for Peoria riverfront development in the district of freshman Ray LaHood (R-Ill.).

VI. FOREIGN OPERATIONS

The Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations bill traditionally contains less pork than almost all the other appropriations bills. Nevertheless, the bill does not present an opportunity for some members to channel funds to narrow interests that have at best a tenuous connection to U.S. foreign policy goals.

The following items were not included in the President’s budget request and were not requested by at least one chamber of Congress:

$19,600,000 added by the House for the International Fund for Ireland, a program that tries to aid the peace process in Ireland by paying for golf videos, pony trekking centers, and sweater exports. This program, a farewell gift to former Speaker Tip O’Neill, should have been retired immediately after the former Speaker left Washington.

$2,500,000 added by the Senate for democracy and humanitarian programs in Burma, in spite of the fact that an interagency committee has had a difficult time finding suitable recipients for the $2 million earmarked for the same purpose in fiscal year 1996.

$2,000,000 added by the Senate for an International Fertilizer Development Center. This program is obviously duplicative since Washington has already perfected the excess production of fertilizer.

$500,000 added by the Senate for the United States Telecommunications Training Institute. This exclusive benefit for the highly profitable telecommunications industry is shrouded in the rhetoric of promoting economic and political development, but it’s nothing more than a corporate handout.

VII. Interior

If Americans have a favorite government agency, it is probably the National Park Service. Unfortunately, the operations account of the Park Service has suffered because appropriators have been raiding the operations account in order to send morsels of pork back home. For this reason, the Park Service has become known as the Pork Service. Other significant sources of pork include the Bureau of Land Management land acquisition and Forest Service construction. The FY 1997 bill contains 127 percent more pork than the FY 1995 appropriation, the last year of measured pork. The President submitted no budget request for the following items:

$14,330,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Conrad Burns (R-Mont.), including: $13,500,000 for an Indian Health Service facility at Lame Deer; $500,000 for whirling disease research at Montana State University; and $330,000 for acquisition and painting of the Maiden Rock Bridge by the Bureau of Land Management.

$8,320,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member J. Bennett Johnston (D-La.), including: $3,320,000 for preservation and stabilization at Cane River National Historic Park; $3,000,000 for development at New Orleans Jazz National Historic Park; and $2,000,000 for construction of research facilities at the Audubon Center.

$8,170,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Thad Cochran (R-Miss.), including: $4,600,000 for construction of the Natchez Trace Parkway; $2,000,000 for rehabilitation at Vicksburg National Military Park; $1,000,000 for erosion control at the Gulf Islands National Seashore; $370,000 for Fish and Wildlife Service refuge construction; and $200,000 for the Center for Folk Life Programs and Cultural Studies for the Mississippi Delta Program at the 1997 Festival of American Folk Life.

$7,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of then-Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.), including: $3,000,000 for habitat restoration at Tulana Farms Ranch; $1,000,000 for land acquisition at Tualatin Refuge National Wildlife Reserve; $900,000 for construction at Baker City Flagstaff Hill interpretative center; $750,000 for trail construction and rewiring at Oregon Caves National Monument; $750,000 (added in conference) for a grant to the World Forestry Center for research on land exchange efforts in the Umpqua River Basin; $500,000 for land acquisition at Siletz Bay coastal refuge; $500,000 for land acquisition at Nestucca Bay coastal refuge; and $100,000 for species and resource surveys on the Longview Fibre/Mount Hood Corridor land exchange.

$7,400,000 added for projects in three Ohio districts in which House Republican freshmen faced a serious reelection challenge in 1996. The following earmarks were included in the appropriation bill after the House leadership circulated a memo last year asking Republican appropriators to help Republican freshmen with pork: $2,900,000 added by the House for side and structure rehabilitation at Cuyahoga National Recreation Area in the district of Rep. Steven C. La Tourette; $2,300,000 added in conference for construction at the William Howard Taft National Historic Site in the district of Rep. Steve Chabot; and $2,200,000 added by the House for construction at Wayne National Forest in the district of Rep. Frank Cremeans.

$4,400,000 added by the House for headquarters construction at the Blue Ridge Parkway, which traverses the district of House appropriations Subcommittee member Charles Taylor (R-N.C.).

$3,625,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va.), including: $1,725,000 for access and trails stabilization at New River Gorge National River; $1,000,000 for land acquisition at Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Reserve; and $900,000 for hardwoods market and economic analysis at the Princeton, W.V. research laboratory.

$3,530,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $2,000,000 for construction at Denali National Park; and $1,530,000 for equipment at the Anchorage native primary care center.

$1,894,000 for projects in the state of Senate Interior Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Slade Gorton (R-Wash.), including: $1,116,000 added in conference for roof repair at Mount Rainier National Park; $308,000 added in conference for road repair at Lake Chelan National Recreation Area; $270,000 added by the Senate for Elwha fish restoration at Olympic National Park; and $200,000 added by the Senate for the Hood Canal Salmon Enhancement Group and “Long Live the Kings.”

$1,400,000 added by the House for elevator replacement at Carlsbad Caverns National Park in the district of House Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Joe Skeen (R-N.M.).

$1,200,000 added by the House for trails rehabilitation at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in the district of House Interior Appropriations subcommittee member Joe McDade (R-Pa.).

$736,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.), including: $500,000 for construction of an administrative building at Blackwater National Wildlife Reserve; and $236,000 for operation of the William O. Douglas Center.

$250,000 added by the House for construction at the Thomas Stone National Historic Site in the district of House appropriator Steny Hoyer (D-Md.).

VIII. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education

The Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations bill has pockets of pork strewn throughout the multi-billion dollar bill. This year’s Pig Book entries include the return of some golden oldies as well as some new chart-busting hits. FY 1997 pork is $400 million, or 19 percent less than FY 1995, the last year of measured pork.

$16,369,000 added by the Senate for public library construction. The House declined to request funding because subcommittee members believe that public library construction is a local responsibility and should be funded at that level.

$9,469,000 added in conference for Migrant Education programs including: $7,441,000 for the High School Equivalency Program; and $2,028,000 for the College Assistance Migrant Program.

$8,000,000 for library research and demonstrations. This appropriation was not subject to a hearing or specific authorization.

$3,100,000 added by the Senate for the National Writing Project. The House concluded that the National Writing Project should be supported by state or local funding. (Members of Congress don’t need this project with their penchant for signing blank checks from the taxpayers.)

$3,000,000 added by the Senate for the George H.W. Bush Fellowship program.

$2,500,000 for library education and training. This appropriation was not subject to a hearing or specific authorization.

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for 21st Century Community Learning Centers. In denying funding for this program, the House stated that it is duplicative of one already in place.

According to the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, HHS, and Education, the following three programs were added as a trade-off to the establishment of the George H.W. Bush Fellowships in FY 1997.

$3,000,000 added in conference for the Pell Institute of International Relations if the program is authorized by April 1, 1997.

$3,000,000 added by the Senate for the Edmund S. Muskie Foundation if the program is authorized by April 1, 1997.

$1,000,000 added in conference for the Calvin Coolidge Memorial Foundation if the program is authorized by April 1, 1997.

IX. Legislative Branch

Even though one project slipped through the ever-watchful eyes of the Legislative Branch appropriators, this is still the example which other appropriators should follow.

$750,000 to upgrade the electrical system in the James Madison Building at the Library of Congress.

X. Military Construction

Congress is sending $930 million worth of military construction pork back home this year, a nine percent increase of $76 million from the previous year. While some of this pork was a response to housing shortages, much of it was not. Making this year’s list of pork were these items, unrequested by the President and at least one chamber of Congress:

$27,388,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii), including: $10,600,000 added by the Senate for barracks renewal at Schofield Barracks; and $9,000,000 added by the Senate for alteration of a squadron operations facility at Hickham Air Force Base; and $5,900,000 added in conference for an Army aviation support facility at Hilo.

$18,350,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (R-Miss.), including: $7,960,000 for an ocean acoustics research laboratory at the Stennis Space Center; $5,400,000 to relocate a road at Gulfport-Biloxi Regional Airport; and $4,990,000 to extend the west quaywall at Pascagoula Naval Station.

$17,900,000 added above the budget request by the Senate for planning and design at unspecified world wide locations. At the same time, the military is trying to reduce the number of bases overseas.

$17,555,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $5,700,000 for airfield pavements repair at King Salmon; $4,955,000 for expansion of a readiness center in Fairbanks; $3,900,000 for a conventional munitions shop at Elison Air Force Base; and $3,000,000 for a fuel farm at Elmendorf Air Force Base.

$17,100,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Harry Reid (D-Nev.), including: $9,900,000 for a dormitory at Nellis Air Force Base; $5,800,000 for a test enclosure at Fallon Naval Air Station; and $1,400,000 for a C-130 aircraft parking apron addition at Reno International Airport.

$17,100,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator and Budget Committee Chairman Pete V. Domenici (R-N.M.), including: $10,000,000 for an advanced laser research facility at Kirtland Air Force Base; and $7,100,000 for a logistics administration facility at Cannon Air Force Base.

$13,000,000 added by the Senate for an urban training complex at Fort Knox in the state of Senate appropriator Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.).

$11,000,000 added by the House for family housing at Fort Bliss in the district of then- House appropriator Rep. Ronald Coleman (D-Texas).

$10,000,000 added by the House for a national range control center at White Sands Missile Range in the district of House appropriator Joe Skeen (R-N.M.).

$10,000,000 added by the House for ante-chamber and laboratory space at Patuxent River Naval Air Warfare Center in the district of House appropriator Steny Hoyer (D-Md.).

$10,000,000 added by the House for bachelor enlisted quarters at Great Lakes Naval Hospital in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member John Edward Porter (R-Ill.).

$8,985,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Chairwoman Barbara F. Vucanovich (R-Nev.), including: $7,955,000 for family housing at Nellis Air Force Base; and $1,030,000 for a child development center at Fallon Naval Air Station.

$8,300,000 for foundry improvements at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member Thomas M. Foglietta (D-Pa.).

$7,150,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.), including: $5,000,000 for a chiller system upgrade at the U.S. Naval Academy; and $2,150,000 for a family support center at Andrews Air Force Base.

$7,000,000 added by the House for a runway expansion at Hulman Field in Terre Haute in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations subcommittee member John Myers (R-Ind.).

$6,850,000 added by the House for projects at Stanly County Airport in the district of House Military Construction Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member W.G. “Bill” Hefner (D-N.C.), including: $5,000,000 for a composite maintenance facility; and $1,850,000 for a parallel taxiway.

XI. Transportation

Transportation pork is popular among appropriators because it is visible. When a road is being built or a local transit system receives new equipment, constituents believe that the government works. What they don’t see is the back room wheeling and dealing that goes on to get funding for the projects. Federal Transit Administration officials expressed particular frustration with the amount of egregious earmarking within the bus and bus-related facilities account. With the prospect of the re-authorization of the Intermodal Surface Transportation and Efficiency Act (ISTEA) in 1997, appropriators are sharpening their knives to carve out their own piece of pork. ISTEA has the potential to authorize more than $20 billion worth of transportation infrastructure.

$29,825,000 added by the Senate for projects in the State of then-Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.), including: $9,000,000 for Portland buses and South Bus Mall Extension; $6,000,000 for the Portland South/North Light Rail Transit project; $5,000,000 for debt retirement for the Port of Portland; $5,000,000 for the Central City Streetcar; $2,550,000 for Eugene Lane Transit District buses and station; $1,850,000 for Salem Downtown Transit Center; $250,000 for Wilsonville Transit Vehicles; and $175,000 for Hood River buses.

$16,500,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Arlen Specter (R-Pa.), including: $10,000,000 for the Pittsburgh Airport Busway Project; $4,000,000 for Philadelphia Alternative Fueled Vehicles; $2,000,000 for the Erie Intermodal Complex; and $500,000 for the Urban Transportation Safety Systems Center at Drexel University in Philadelphia.

$16,390,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $10,000,000 for Alaska Railroad Rehabilitation; and $6,390,000 for the Alaska-Hollis to Ketchikan Ferry Project.

$11,100,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Robert Bennett (R-Utah), including: $5,600,000 for Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics Buses and Bus Facilities; and $5,500,000 for Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics Intermodal Centers. (Taxpayers won’t have to wait until 2002 to experience the agony of defeat.)

$10,000,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (R-Miss.), including: $5,500,000 for the Jackson Intermodal Corridor; $3,500,000 for the Jackson Downtown Multimodal Transit Center; and $1,000,000 for Jackson Buses.

$7,420,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-W.Va.), including; $4,240,000 for the Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit Program; and $3,180,000 to renovate the Charleston bus maintenance facility.

$4,950,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriators Jim Jeffords (R-Vt.) and Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), including: $2,750,000 for the urban and rural buses and bus facilities; $1,500,000 for the Burlington Mutimodal Center; and $700,000 for the Rutland Intermodal Station. (Who says Republicans and Democrats can’t work together?)

$4,072,520 added in conference for projects in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Tom Harkin (D-Iowa) and then-House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Jim Lightfoot (R-Iowa), including: $1,270,000 for regions 6, 13, 14, 15, and 16; $1,192,000 for Des Moines; $855,760 for Iowa City; $693,360 for Fort Dodge park and ride facility; and $61,400 for Ottumwa. (Another fine example of bipartisan cooperation.)

$3,000,000 added for projects in the district of House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Sonny Callahan (R-Ala.), including: $2,000,000 added by the House for the I-10 Mobile Causway; and $1,000,000 added in conference for the Mobile Advanced Traffic Management System.

$3,000,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House appropriator Joseph McDade (R-Pa.), including: $2,000,000 for Williamsport buses and bus facilities; and $1,000,000 for Scranton buses and bus facilities.

$2,500,000 added by the House for El Paso bus and bus facilities in the district of then- House Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Ronald Coleman (D-Texas).

$2,000,000 added by the House for Syracuse Buses in the district of House appropriator James Walsh (R-N.Y.).

$1,735,000 added by the Senate for buses for the Regional Transportation Commission in Reno, Nevada in the state of Senate Transportation Appropriations subcommittee member Harry Reid (D-N.V.).

$1,400,000 added in conference for buses in the city of Fairfield, California in the district of House appropriator Frank Riggs (R-Calif.).

$1,000,000 added by the House for Norwalk Buses and Bus Facilities in the district of House appropriator Esteban Edward Torres (D-Calif.).

XII. Treasury and Postal Service

Courthouse pork made a comeback in fiscal year 1997, as appropriators decided to drop the moratorium on new courthouse construction. While appropriators are to be commended for working to reduce the costs of courthouse construction, pork is still pork, and courthouse pork is back. Overall, pork-barrel spending in the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations bill increased 122 percent over the previous fiscal year. The President submitted no budget request for the following items, which were all added in conference:

$10,000,000 for Montgomery County, White Oak environmental cleanup activities in the state of Senate Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations subcommittee member Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.).

$8,200,000 for a new classroom building at the Rowley Secret Service Training Center in Beltsville, Maryland, which is the district of House Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations subcommittee member Steny Hoyer (D-Md.) and the state of Senate appropriator Barbara A. Mikulski (D-Md.).

$6,000,000 for continuing construction of the U.S. Courthouse in Montgomery in the state of Senate appropriator Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala.).

$2,500,000 for a grant to the Western Hemispheric Trade Center, a consortium of four universities in Texas, including Texas A&M International University in the district of House appropriator Henry Bonilla (R-Texas) and the University of Texas El Paso in the district of then-member of the Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Subcommittee, Ronald D. Coleman (D-Texas).

$2,000,000 for a demonstration project sponsored by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to develop electronic databases that can be coordinated with federal on-line services in the state of Senate Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Robert Kerrey (D-Neb.).

$1,450,000 for renovation of the Pioneer Courthouse in Portland, Oregon, in the state of then-Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.).

$100,000 for restoration and maintenance of the multi-purpose field at Wallenberg Place in Washington, D.C.

The following items were not requested by the President and were not requested by at least one chamber of Congress:

$17,000,000 for new region-specific High Intensity Drug-Trafficking Areas (HIDTA), including: $3,000,000 added in conference for a new HIDTA for Colorado, the state of House appropriator David E. Skaggs (D-Colo.) and Senate appropriator Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Colo.); $3,000,000 added by the House for a new HIDTA in Lake County, Indiana, in the district of House Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations subcommittee member Peter J. Visclosky (D-Ind.); $8,000,000 added by the House for a new HIDTA for the Midwest states of Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Kansas; $6,000,000 added by the House for a new HIDTA for the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Alabama, and Missouri; and $3,000,000 added in conference for a new HIDTA for the Pacific Northwest.

$9,900,000 added by the House for courthouse construction in Orlando, Florida.

$8,000,000 added by the House for renovation of the Agricultural Research Service Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, in the district of then-Chairman of the House Treasury, Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Subcommittee Jim Lightfoot (R-Iowa).

$3,500,000 added by the Senate for repairs and alterations at the U.S. Customhouse in New Orleans in the state of Senate appropriator J. Bennett Johnston (D-La.).

$3,300,000 added by the House for courthouse construction in Erie, Pennsylvania, in the district of vulnerable freshman Phillip S. English (R-Pa.).

XIII. Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development

Violating three of CAGW’s criteria for pork, the following items had no budget request, were not included in either the House or Senate appropriation bills, and were only added at the last minute by the conference committee.

$12,000,000 for Advanced Space Transportation programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

$10,000,000 for NASA’s Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics program.

$2,000,000 for development, replication and distribution of a national prototype space education curriculum to be developed by the Bishop Museum in Honolulu in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii). This grant duplicates many private sector programs such as Young Astronauts.

$1,000,000 for the Michigan Biotechnology Institute’s pilot program for commercializing environmental technologies of national strategic benefit.

$1,000,000 for watershed coordinators for salmon protection in the Pacific Northwest, funded through the non-profit For the Sake of the Salmon.

$250,000 for the National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project.

$200,000 for training and upgrading of waste treatment works operators and maintenance personnel by the Alabama Water and Wastewater Institute, in the state of Senate VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations subcommittee member Richard C. Shelby (R-Ala.).

The President submitted no budget request for the following items, which were added by only one chamber of Congress:

$20,000,000 added by the House for phase one of a spinal cord injury unit and energy center project at the Tampa VA Medical Center in the state of House appropriator C.W. (Bill) Young (R-Fla.).

$19,700,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of then-Senate Appropriations Chairman Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.), including: $16,000,000 for a research addition at the Portland VA Medical Center; $2,000,000 for a demonstration of the latest technology in utilizing reclaimed water from a wastewater treatment facility in Silverton; and $1,700,000 for the Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Program conducted by the City of Portland and the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries.

$8,000,000 added by the House for further development of the American Museum of Natural History/national center for science literacy, education and technology, including the Hall of the Universe and the Hall of Life’s Diversity.

$2,250,000 for projects in the state of Senate VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations subcommittee member Ted Stevens (R-Alaska), including: $2,000,000 added in conference for a demonstration project on leaking above ground storage tanks; and $250,000 for a grant to the Nature Conservancy of Alaska for protection of the Kenai River watershed.

$400,000 added by the Senate for the Maui algal bloom project in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel K. Inouye (D-Hawaii). (That’s not algae floating in the water; that’s your money.)

$290,000 added by the House for analysis of the perennial yield of good quality groundwater in the Wadsworth sub-basin for the town of Fernley in the state of VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations subcommittee member Barbara F. Vucanovich (R-Nev.).

$250,000 added by the House for a feasibility study to create a national residential high school at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland in district of House VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Louis Stokes (DOhio).

$100,000 added by the Senate for a demonstration project on the use of oysters to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay tributaries in the state of Senate VA, HUD and Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee Ranking Member Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.). This project duplicates the activities of the growing private sector aquaculture industry.

In its draft of the bill, the Senate did not include any earmarks for state and tribal assistance grants for wastewater projects, but the final bill included $136 million of such earmarks, including $36 million that were in neither the House nor the Senate bill, but only added later in conference. The projects included:

$8,000,000 for water quality improvement to Tanner Creek in Portland in the state of then-Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee, Mark O. Hatfield (R-Ore.).

$5,400,000 for Wastewater improvements in the East Cooper area of Berkeley County in the state of Senate appropriator Ernest F. Hollings (D-S.C.).

$5,000,000 for wastewater treatment improvements in Middlebury in the state of Senate appropriators Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.) and James M. Jeffords (R-Vt.).

$5,000,000 for a wastewater improvement project in the Taney County Common Sewer District in the state of Senate VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Christopher Bond (R- Mo.).

$2,850,000 for a water treatment facility replacement and improvements for the Agua Sana Water Users Association in New Mexico.

$2,000,000 for sewer infrastructure improvements in Kodiak in the state of Senate VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations subcommittee member Ted Stevens (RAlaska).

$2,000,000 for a wet weather pollution abatement program in the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District.

$1,750,000 for wastewater treatment projects in O’Neill in the state of Senate VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations subcommittee member Robert Kerrey (DNeb.).

$1,700,000 for wastewater improvement projects in Essex County, Massachusetts.

$1,150,000 for wastewater improvement needs in Franklin, Huntington, and Clearfield counties in Pennsylvania.

Historical Trends

SpendingEarmarks