1996 Congressional Pig Book | Citizens Against Government Waste

1996 Congressional Pig Book

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The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition.


While a striking, bronze likeness of the Lady Freedom was chosen to crown the U.S. Capitol dome, an enchantress of a different sort – the sorceress Circe of Greek mythology, who had the power to turn men into swine – often seems to have cast her spell over the chambers below.

Rolling out the pork barrel and having a barrel of fun has long been one of Washington’s more unseemly traditions, and few indeed have shown the will to resist its temptations. Pork stubbornly remained the capital’s currency of power despite soaring deficits and mounting debt; and bribing constituents with their own money a widely accepted way of doing business. Under Circe’s spell, American politicians amended Lord Acton’s popular old adage: power tends to corrupt, and power over the purse strings corrupts absolutely.

Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) has documented, based on a sevenpoint criteria, more than $43.5 billion in “procedural pork” since 1991 – money that’s appropriated in circumvention of the normal budgetary procedures. Because it falls through the cracks – or, is pushed through the cracks by legislators eager to curry favor with a select number of privileged few constituents – this money is often spent on projects which benefit some special interest, and often not in the national interest.

But this year, there signs that Congress may be shaking of Circe’s spell. While all is still far from well, a reading of this year’s “bacon barometer” reveals some hopeful trends.

Although CAGW found a total of $12.5 billion in procedural pork larding-up the eight appropriations bills that have been passed – the subject of the 1996 Congressional Pig Book Summary – nearly $10.5 billion of that was found in a defense bill which bucked the otherwise downward trend with a nearly 133-percent increase in pork over 1995. The remaining bills – Agriculture, Energy and Water, Foreign Operations, Legislative Branch, Military Construction, Transportation, and Treasury/Postal – averaged almost 11 percent less pork than in last year’s appropriations. Energy and Water pork was cut in half -- $220 million less than in fiscal year (FY) 1995. And Congress can be particularly proud of its strictly kosher Legislative Branch appropriation bill, the first certified pork-free appropriation ever!

Also on a positive (and some might even say “revolutionary”) note, several mouth-watering categories of pork – new federal courthouses, highway demonstration projects, and HUD special purpose grants – were wiped out entirely. That’s the good news. The bad news is that in other areas, porking out continues unabated. For example, less than seven percent of all Cooperative State Research Service special research grants were requested by the Department of Agriculture. And, behind the high-minded talk about differing defense priorities between Congress and the White House, spending addons were driven largely by insider deals and the powerful taking care of their own.

Besides being an egregious abuse of power, pork-barrel spending results in an inequitable distribution of federal funds, with money being allocated based on political clout rather than merit or need. The “winners” in this year’s pork-barrel derby were Hawaii, which received $55.44 in procedural pork per capita; Alaska, with $48.43; Nevada, with $32.97; Montana, with $25.86; and South Dakota, with $18.07. In contrast, 3 the national per capita average was $5.96. California received the most procedural pork overall ($118.4 million), with New York ($99.4 million) and Pennsylvania ($83.9 million), rounding out the top three.

At a time when dramatic changes are said to be reworking the political landscape, one key indicator of whether Washington is really changing its ways is the bacon barometer. While an odd year in many respects, and far too soon to call it a trend, this year’s partly sunny outlook at least provides hope that the spirit of Freedom (especially from abuse of power by a privileged few) will once again reign over the Capitol, and the spell of Circe will be broken.

CAGW’s criteria for pork are:

  • Requested by only one chamber of Congress;
  • Not specifically authorized;
  • Not competitively awarded;
  • Not requested by the President;
  • Greatly exceeds the President’s budget request or the previous year’s funding;
  • Not the subject of congressional hearings; or
  • Serves only a local or special interest.

I. Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), through the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS), is involved in many research projects ranging from aflatoxin to wool research. Less than seven percent of all CSDS special research grants funded by Congress were requested by USDA in fiscal year (FY) 1996. Appropriators also raid Federal administration special grants and the Agricultural Research Service for their own interests, but CSRS is Congress’ most popular avenue to siphon money back to their alma mater or district. The good news in agriculture is that pork-barrel spending decreased by $57 million from FY 1995.

$395,000 added in conference for Rice Modeling at the Universities of Arkansas and Missouri. In testimony this past year, USDA officials protested to the subcommittee that “funding for this project has not been awarded competitively.” (Uncle Ben, not Uncle Sam, should be funding this research.)

Even though the following programs were not requested by the president or even specifically authorized, Congress appropriated money for them in FY 1996:

$3,054,000 for shrimp aquaculture (Ariz., Hawaii, Mass., Miss., & S.C.). An internal USDA audit, obtained by CAGW, details abuse by one of the grant recipients, the Oceanic Institute (OI) of Hawaii. In addition to USDA, OI was audited by the 4 Department of Commerce and the Agency for International Development. According to the USDA inspector general, OI “did not comply with Federal regulations or with the terms of the grant agreements. OI used grant finds for purposes that were not specified in its grant budgets and that were not approved by ARS [Agricultural Research Service] or CSREES [Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service]. It also made unallowable procurements with related parties and did not always perform required cost analyses, document the bases for contractor selection, or justify the lack of competition when procuring goods and services.” (Our tax dollars lost in a sea of red ink.)

$1,357,000 for the Illinois-Missouri Alliance for Biotechnology for “research in targeted areas of priority, industrial opportunity, and need.” Even though non-federal funding is strongly encouraged (but not required), to date, such funding has not been secured for this new project.

$1,214,000 for potato research (Idaho, Md., Maine, Mich., N.D., Ore., Pa., & Wash.). Since 1983, $13,010,000 has been appropriated for such research. Apparently, believing that 12 years of staring at spuds was enough, USDA officials anticipated an end to such research in fiscal year 1995 and requested no funding for FY 1996. They also objected to the program being awarded non-competitively.

$752,000 for human nutrition research at Louisiana State University. Since 1991, a total of $3,904,000 has been appropriated for such research.

$332,000 for the Food Marketing Policy Center at the University of Connecticut (UConn) in Storrs, CT, in the district of ex-farmer and UConn alumni Sam Gejdenson (D-Conn.). Since 1988, $2,688,000 has been appropriated for this center, which is apparently dedicated to consuming our tax dollars.

$370,000 for Chesapeake Bay aquaculture. Since 1990, $2,462,000 has been appropriated for such research. USDA officials told the subcommittee they didn’t want the money for the project and opposed its being awarded non-competitively.

The following programs were requested by only one chamber of Congress:

$9,891,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Agriculture Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Thad Cochran (R-Miss). Projects include: $3,000,000 for the National Food Service Management Institute; $1,900,000 for the National Center for Warmwater Aquaculture at Stoneville; $1,555,000 for the Center for Water and Wetland Resources at the University of Mississippi [Sen. Cochran’s alma mater]; $1,500,000 for the National Center for Natural Products at Oxford; $592,000 for aquaculture research; $583,000 Mississippi Valley State University; $308,000 for alternative marine and fresh water species research; $305,000 for seafood and aquaculture harvesting, processing, and marketing research; and $148,000 for delta revitalization research. (Chairmanship has its privileges.)

$4,058,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Tom Harkin (D-Iowa). Projects include: $1,792,000 for the Iowa Biotechnology Consortium; $655,000 for the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development; $592,000 for Midwest agricultural products; $473,000 for human nutrition research; $345,000 for integrated cow/calf resources management; and $201,000 for food irradiation research.

$3,758,000 added by the Senate for wood utilization research (Maine, Mich., Minn., Miss., N.C., and Ore.). Since 1985, $35,015,000 has been appropriated for such research. (How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if he had $3,758,000?)

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for outreach for socially disadvantaged farmers. The House did not request funding because there are a number of other programs that already target this population.

$500,000 added by the House for the Viticulture Consortium (Calif. & N.Y.). The consortium is a joint operation between the University of California and Cornell University to enhance United States grape farming. In an effort to justify this project, the House Agriculture Committee argued that, “many European countries are expending significant research dollars on viticulture and for the [U.S.] to remain competitive worldwide, research is our best opportunity.” (This leaves a sour taste in the mouths of taxpayers.)

$246,000 added by the House for income enhancement demonstration in the district of House appropriations agriculture subcommittee member Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio). USDA officials refused to fund this project, telling the subcommittee that it mainly benefits the Toledo farmer’s market and serves no national interest.

$212,000 added by the Senate for the Asian Products Laboratory in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark Hatfield (R-Ore.). Since 1994, $477,000 has been appropriated. (This project should retire with Sen. Hatfield in 1997.)

$32,000 added by the Senate for the Center for Rural Studies in the state of Agriculture Committee Ranking Member and Senate appropriator Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.). According to USDA testimony, funds in the past have been used for “analytical reports provided to a retail shopping mall to help it attract new businesses to fill vacant space…” Since 1992, $142,000 has been appropriated for the center. (No one should be surprised if “Pigs R Us” opens an outlet store at this mall.)

II. Defense

The challenges of the Cold War are long gone; new and untested challenges remain. America must have adequate resources to defend itself. That is why eliminating Department of Defense (DOD) pork is so critical. Every dollar in defense pork means one less dollar in defense muscle. CAGW’s 1996 Pig Book identifies more than $10 billion in procedural pork, compared to less than $4.5 billion in FY 1995. The defense of our nation is important, but so is the defense of our fiscal austerity.

$36,749,000 added by the House for a generic increase for industrial preparedness.

$25,000,000 added by the Senate for Kaho’olawe Island conveyance and environmental restoration trust fund in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-HI). There is currently more than $116 million in the account for this clean-up, while the Navy only projects spending of $26 million in fiscal year 1996. (With a surplus of more than $90 million, this is an appropriation that needs to be cleaned up.)

$15,000,000 added by the Senate without authorization for remediation of environmental contamination for National Presto Industries in Eau Claire, WI. The Department of Defense is resolutely against appropriating money until a law suit between DOD and National Presto Industries is settled. Even though the site is in Wisconsin, the Florida delegation pushed for the project because the company’s headquarters are in Florida.

$15,000,000 added by the Senate for research and development of electric vehicles. Over the last two years, Congress provided $75 million for electric vehicle research and development, despite concerted private-sector efforts to create a commercially viable electric car. (This program should come as a shock to taxpayers.)

$10,000,000 added by the House for high-temperature, superconducting materials.

$9,500,000 added by the House for Joint Seismic Research through the Air Force. This is in addition to the $50 million spent annually by the Department of Interior on seismology.

$5,000,000 added by the Senate for High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project in the state of Senate appropriator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska).

$5,000,000 added in conference for the instrumented factory for gears. According to Army officials, this is not a high-priority project. (This program should be put in reverse.)

$3,500,000 added in conference for a distributed manufacturing demonstration project.

$1,000,000 added by the Senate for Brown Tree Snake research. The Brown Tree Snake, which is found only in Guam, has not been discovered to be life threatening to humans nor does it have the ability to survive in North America. The snake was first introduced to Guam in the late 1940’s. (This is a real kick is the asp to taxpayers.)

$500,000 earmarked by the Senate for the Life Sciences Equipment laboratory at Kelly Air Force Base in the state of Senate appropriator Phil Gramm (R-Texas).

III. Energy and Water

Influential appropriators have traditionally used the Energy and Water appropriations bill as a pipeline for pork. Popular avenues in the past have been the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) and the Army Corps of Engineers. Even though the ARC survived the budget-cutting Congress, earmarking via the Energy and Water appropriations bill is gone, saving more than $112 million from last year’s Pig Book. The Army Corps of Engineers saw a decline in pork by nearly $40 million from last year, contributing to a total reduction of $200 million, or 49 percent, in pork for FY 1995 Energy and Water appropriations. A smaller pie, but the biggest pieces still went to appropriators.

$4,775,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Ted Stevens (R-Alaska): $3,800,000 for repair and extension at Homer Spit; $280,000 for Nome Harbor; $275,000 for the Valdez Harbor; $175,000 for the Kuskowin River; $175,000 for the Wrangell; and $50,000 for Aniak. (And we thought Northern Exposure was cancelled.)

$4,000,000 added by the Senate for aquatic plant control through the Army Corps of Engineers. The administration and the House concluded that funding for this program would be handled best by the 13 individual states that are affected by the problem.

$3,750,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state if Senate Energy and Water Subcommittee Ranking Member J. Bennett Johnston (D-LA): $2,300,000 for Ouachita River levees; $850,000 for Lake Pontchartrain storm water discharge; $300,000 for the Mississippi River ship channel; $200,000 for Amite River and tributaries; $100,000 for the Louisiana Sate Penitentiary levees.

$2,000,000 added in conference for general construction through the Army Corps of Engineers for the Indianapolis Central waterfront project by House appropriator John Myers (R-Ind.). (An appropriate project, since your money flows like water when Rep. Myers is involved.)

$2,000,000 added in conference for Southeast Louisiana through the Army Corps of Engineers by House Appropriations Committee Chairman Robert Livingston (R-La.).

$1,850,000 added by the Senate for three independent commissions:

$771,000 for the Delaware River Basin Commission; $568,000 for the Susquehanna River Basin Commission; and $511,000 for the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin.

$1,674,000 added in conference for Army Corps of Engineers operation and maintenance projects in Maine: $960,000 for the Scarborough River; and $714,000 for York Harbor.

$1,500,000 added by the Senate for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to fund environmental restoration projects. In the conference report, the House, concerned with protecting private property rights, expressed outrage over foundation grants to “organizations known to be hostile to the interests of private landowners and those engaged in the productive and lawful use of public lands.”

IV. Foreign Operations

Overall Foreign Operations appropriations declined by $1.5 billion, or 11.5 percent from FY 1995. In a move not consistent with that positive result, pork-barrel spending increased by more than $22 million, or 110 percent. With increasing budgetary pressures at home, Congress must be ever more vigilant with money spent on overseas projects.

$19,600,000 added by the House for the International Fund for Ireland. According to the bill that created the fund, “The United States government has identified two priorities in its contribution to the fund: job creation and the leveraging of additional investment into the economy.” In the past, this program has used American taxpayer dollars for a golf video and pony trekking centers. The Senate was specific about its position on this project, stating, “given budget considerations and Ireland’s unique access to European Community resources, the Committee believes the United States can play a more effective role in encouraging investment and trade rather than the provision of grant aid.”

$4,250,000 for projects through the Agency for International Development. Projects include: $3,000,000 added by the Senate for Ohr Torah Institutions; $650,000 added by the Senate for the United States Telecommunications Training Institute (USTTI); and $600,000 for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Initiative. At first glance, the purposes of the USTTI seem lofty and humanitarian: improving “the dissemination of vital information throughout a country with the potential for improving overall life – economic commercial, and social.” The real purpose of the USTTI is to expand the foreign markets of the telecommunications industry; but a multibillion-dollar industry can probably find its own money to invest in expanding its markets.

V. Legislative Branch

Congratulations are in order for the first pork-free appropriation bill in Pig Book history. Subcommittee Chairmen Sen. Connie Mack (R-Fla.) and Rep. Ron Packard (R-Calif.) deserve special recognition for this accomplishment. (One down, twelve to go.)

VI. Military Construction

Despite amendments by the Porkbusters Coalition and CAGW to kill $38 million in military construction spending and the Pentagon’s inspector general calling every military construction project suspect because justifications for construction are often “incomplete, poorly documented, or otherwise flawed,” pork-barrel military construction projects still exist. The morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) trust fund and discretionary accounts, which were set up by the Department of Defense as an extensive system of programs to enhance the quality of life of its military members, is virtually bankrupt. Pork-hungry appropriators are now using the military construction appropriations bill to build golf courses, gymnasiums, and child development centers that normally would have been funded by the MWR accounts. Child development centers alone accounted for more than $44 million in appropriated funds in FY 1996. The good news: funding for pork-barrel projects declined by more than $47 million, or 5.3 percent from FY 1995.

$10,400,000 for a physical fitness center at Bremerton Puget Sound Naval Shipyard in the district of House appropriator Norm Dicks (D-Wash.), who ardently defended the project against the Porkbusters Coalition on the floor of the House. There are currently five gyms within a five-minute drive of the Bremerton Shipyard.

$2,000,000 added in conference for road improvements in the state of Senate appropriator Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii).

The following projects were added by the House:

$21,200,000 for projects at Fort Bragg, part of which is in the district of House appropriator W.G. “Bill” Hefner (D-N.C.): $13,200,000 for a health clinic; and $8,000,000 for barracks.

$15,000,000 for housing at Nellis Air Force Base in the district of House Appropriations Subcommittee Chairwoman Barbara F. Vucanovich (R-Nev.).

$8,900,000 for projects at Fort Bliss in the district of House appropriator Ronald Coleman (D-Texas): $4,900,000 for a dining facility; and $4,000,000 for a child development center.

$8,200,000 for a dormitory at Fairchild Air Force Base in the district of House freshman appropriator George Nethercutt, Jr. (R-Wash.).

$6,000,000 for foundry renovation and modernization at the soon-to-be-closed Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in the district of House appropriations subcommittee member Thomas M. Foglietta (D-Pa.).

$5,500,000 for upgrading an electrical system at Picatinny Arsenal in the district of House freshman appropriator Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-N.J.).

$4,100,000 for a maintenance complex at Hulman Field in the district of House appropriator John T. Myers (R-Ind.).

$3,320,000 for a regional maintenance shop in the district of House appropriations subcommittee member Joseph McDade (R-PA).

$3,000,000 for upgrading a communications complex at Glynn County Air National Guard Station in the district of House appropriator Jack Kingston (R-Ga.).

$2,050,000 for water development at White Sands Missile Range in the district of House appropriator Joe Skeen (R-N.M.)

The following projects were added by the Senate:

$33,469,000 for projects in the state of Senate Majority Leader Robert Dole (R-Kan.): $8,389,000 for the Headquarters of the 89th Army Command at Witchita Army Reserve; $7,900,000 for a B-1 fuel maintenance hanger at McConnell Air Force Base; $7,000,000 for barracks renewal at Fort Riley; $5,200,000 for a medical training communications facility at Forbes Field; and $4,980,000 for KC-135 operations and training at McConnell Air Force Base.

$21,041,000 for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Conrad Burns (R-Mont.): $12,506,000 for and Army aviation support facility at Helena Regional Airport; $7,854,000 for a training site support facility at Fort Harrison; and $681,000 for latrine additions at Fort Harrison. (Our tax dollars being flushed down the toilet.)

$15,229,000 for a leadership brigade facility in the state of Senate appropriator Ernest Hollings (D-S.C.).

$14,656,000 for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.): $10,000,000 for barracks renewal at Fort Campbell; $4,656,000 for a training complex in Greenville.

$12,376,000 for maintenance support activity and an organizational maintenance shop at Manchester Army Reserve in the state of Senate appropriations subcommittee member Judd Gregg (R-N.H.).

$12,341,000 for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations committee chairman Mark Hatfield (R-Ore.): $4,769,000 for a combined support maintenance shop at Camp Withecombe; $4,600,000 for an operations and training facility for the Klamath Falls Air National Guard; and $2,972,000 for an airfield operations facility for the Salem Army National Guard.

$11,500,000 for projects at Maxwell Air Force Base in the state of Senate appropriator Richard Shelby (R-Ala.): $10,000,000 for an ambulatory health care center; and $1,500,000 for a computer software center.

$10,950,000 for projects at Eielson Air Force Base in the state of Senate appropriations subcommittee member Ted Stevens (R-Alaska): $4,400,000 for a base engineering complex; $4,000,000 for boiler rehabilitation; and $2,550,000 for an aircraft engine shop.

$10,790,000 for military housing in the state of the Senate Appropriations Committee Ranking Member Robert C. Byrd (D-WV).

$10,100,000 for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Thad Cochran (R-Miss.): $5,100,000 for road relocation at Gulfport Air National Guard Combat Readiness Training Center; and $5,000,000 for a multi-purpose range complex at Camp Shelby.

$9,877,000 for training and barracks facilities at the soon-to-be-closed Fort Indiantown Gap in the state of Senate appropriator Arlen Specter (R-PA).

VII. Transportation

Courageous efforts were made this past year to seriously curtail the pork traditionally funneled through the transportation appropriations bill. The most visible of these efforts was the elimination of highway demonstration projects which, according to the Congressional Budget Office, will save taxpayers more than $3 billion over five years. But despite the best efforts of the Porkbusters Coalition and CAGW to battle transportation pork, the total was up more than 25 percent. The following list does not include the numerous pork-barrel projects that are funneled through the transportation appropriations subcommittee via the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Since the sweeping authorization of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 12 1991, contract authority has been used as a free-flowing conduit of pork by many members of Congress. Authorizers beware – you may be CAGW’s next target!

$31,700,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of former Senate Appropriations Transportation Subcommittee Chairman Alfonse D’Amato (R-NY): $9,000,000 for the Wadsworth Group Coast Guard Center: $5,000,000 for a New York City natural gas buses and refueling station; $5,000,000 for Albany buses; $4,000,000 for Rosebank pier and Coast Guard station rehabilitation; $3,000,000 for Utica bues; $2,000,000 for the National Transportation Center in Oakdale; $1,500,000 for Long Island buses;

$1,500,000 for the New York State Thruway; and $700,000 for Rochester-Genessee buses.

$15,900,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate Appropriations Committee Chairman Mark Hatfield (R-Ore.): $15,000,000 for debt retirement of the Port of Portland; $650,000 for the Eugene lane transit radio system; and $250,000 for Wilsonville transit vehicles.

$10,500,000 for projects in the state of House appropriator and Budget Committee Ranking Member Martin Sabo (D-Minn.): $7,500,000 added by the House for Metropolitan Council articulated buses; $2,000,000 added in conference for the Minnesota Guide Star; $500,000 added by the House for the Team Transit Program of the Minnesota Metropolitan Commission; and $500,000 added by the House for Hennepin public works program.

$9,720,625 added by the House for the Jacksonville Automated Skyway Express (ASE) extension project. From the beginning, this project has epitomized the word “boondoggle.” The projected cost of this project is $34 million per mile. One Department of Transportation Official commented that the ASE has gone from a serious transportation project in the late 1970’s to nothing more than an expensive “amusement ride” today. (Disney World isn’t the only place in Florida where something Goofy is happening.)

$9,260,000 added by the House for projects in the state of House appropriators John Myers (R-Ind.) and Peter Visclosky (D-Ind.): $650,000 for bus and bus facilities; $2,500,000 for a South Bend intermodal facility; and $260,000 for buses in Gary and Hammond.

$7,500,000 added by the House for the heavily lobbied and unauthorized Puerto Rico Tren Urbano project.

$6,150,000 added by the Senate for projects in the state of Senate appropriator Tom Harkin (D-Iowa): $4,280,000 for equipment and facilities for buses; $1,200,000 for the Cedar Rapids hybrid electric bus consortium; and $670,000 for the Waterloo intermodal bus facility.

$2,000,000 added in conference for intelligent transportation systems in Salt Lake City, Utah.

$1,500,000 added by the House for a Johnson City parking management system in the district of Rep. James Quillen (R-Tenn.). According to Department of Transportation officials, Johnson City is receiving much more money than needed to carry out this project.

VIII. Treasury and Postal Service

The Treasury/Postal Service appropriations bill has been a popular avenue for pork over the past several years – mainly unnecessary and often extravagant courthouse construction. The FY 1996 legislation is a marked departure from this trend. Through many congressional hearings and negative media reports inspired by the 1995 Pig Book, all new courthouse construction was wiped out. CAGW estimated that there was some $180 million in courthouse pork in 1995. Appropriators still took home some strips of bacon, but the total was $68 million, or 30 percent less than in 1995.

$6,100,000 added by the House for projects in the district of House Appropriations Subcommittee Chairman Jim Lightfoot (R-Iowa): $6,000,000 for the Iowa Communications Network at Indian Hills Community College in Ottumwa; and $100,000 for the National Animal Disease Center and National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames.

$5,600,000 added by the Senate for a courthouse in Seattle in the state of Senate appropriators Slade Gordon (R-Wash.) and Patty Murray (D-Wash.). Authorization is still pending in the House.

$5,000,000 added by the House for flexiplace telecommuting centers for federal workers in Maryland and Virginia. This funding was divided equally between the congressional districts of House appropriations subcommittee members Frank Wolf (R-Va.) and Steny Hoyer (D-Md.).

$2,500,000 added in conference for a GSA telecommunications project in Lincoln, Nebraska, the state of Senate appropriator Robert Kerrey.

$1,000,000 added in conference for conferences of the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws.

$560,000 added by the House for security improvements at the El Paso Federal Building in the district of House appropriations subcommittee member Ronald Coleman (DTexas).

$450,000 added by the Senate for the Newport Office of the Internal Revenue Service in the state of Senate appropriations subcommittee member Jim Jeffords (R-Vt.).

Historical Trends